India's Chandrayaan-3 Lunar Mission Set for Exploration without Orbiter

By IndraStra Global News Team

Cover Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Launch Vehicle Mark-III at the Second Launch Pad (SLP) of SDSC-SHAR, Sriharikota / Source: ISRO

In a renewed attempt to explore the moon, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched Chandrayaan-3, the country's third lunar mission. Unlike its predecessor, Chandrayaan-2, this mission omits an orbiter and instead relies on a communication relay satellite embedded in its propulsion module. The module will transport the lander and the Pragyan rover, similar to the previous mission until it reaches a lunar orbit of 100 km.

Chandrayaan-3 comes after the disappointing soft landing failure experienced during the Chandrayaan-2 mission, which was attributed to a software glitch. Determined to overcome the setback, ISRO proposed a fresh lunar mission to continue its pursuit of scientific exploration on the moon.

The highly anticipated launch of Chandrayaan-3 took place today, July 14, 2023, at 2:35 pm IST. During the mission's first phase, the spacecraft successfully entered a 100 km circular polar orbit following injection. This milestone marks a significant achievement in India's space exploration endeavors.

With the initial phase completed, attention now turns to the lander and rover, which are anticipated to touch down near the lunar south pole region on August 23, 2023. This region holds great scientific value, and researchers eagerly await the data that Chandrayaan-3 will gather through its exploration activities.

Chandrayan-3 Payloads


Chandrayaan-3 consists of three key components: the Propulsion Module, the Lander, and the Rover.

Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Propulsion Module. / Source: ISRO
Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Propulsion Module. / Source: ISRO

The Propulsion Module serves as a transportation system for the lander and rover until they reach a lunar orbit of 100 km. It features a box-like structure with a large solar panel on one side and an Intermodular Adapter Cone on top, which acts as a mounting structure for the lander. Additionally, the module carries a payload called SHAPE (Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth) to study Earth's spectral and polarimetric measurements from the lunar orbit.

Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Lander Module. / Source: ISRO
Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Lander Module. / Source: ISRO

The Lander is responsible for achieving a soft landing on the lunar surface. It shares a similar box-shaped design to the propulsion module and is equipped with four landing legs and four 800 Newton landing thrusters. The lander carries the rover and various scientific instruments for on-site analysis. Unlike the previous mission's Vikram lander, Chandrayaan-3's lander features only four throttle-able engines. It incorporates enhancements such as a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV), stronger impact legs, improved structural rigidity, and multiple contingency systems. It carries three payloads: ChaSTE (Chandra's Surface Thermophysical Experiment) to measure lunar surface thermal conductivity and temperature, ILSA (Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity) to measure seismic activity near the landing site, and LP (Langmuir Probe) to estimate plasma density and variations.

Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Pragyan Rover Module. / Source: ISRO
Image Attribute: Chandrayaan-3's Pragyan Rover Module. / Source: ISRO

The Pragyan Rover, an integral part of Chandrayaan-3, is designed with six wheels and weighs 26 kilograms (57 pounds). It has a range of 500 meters (1,640 feet) and carries scientific instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, and a drill. The rover's expected lifespan is one lunar day, equivalent to 14 Earth days, during which it will communicate with India's lander and ground control team. The Chandrayaan-3 Rover aims to make important scientific discoveries regarding the lunar surface composition, the presence of water ice in the lunar soil, the history of lunar impacts, and the evolution of the Moon's atmosphere.

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IndraStra Global: India's Chandrayaan-3 Lunar Mission Set for Exploration without Orbiter
India's Chandrayaan-3 Lunar Mission Set for Exploration without Orbiter
By IndraStra Global News Team
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