The Washington Declaration: A New Chapter in US-South Korea Relations

By IndraStra Global Editorial Team

Cover Image Attribute: South Korean President Yoon Suk-yeol handshake with President Joe Biden on April 26, before their joint press conference subsequent to their summit at the White House. (Photograph by Yoon Woon-sik/The Hankyoreh)
Cover Image Attribute: South Korean President Yoon Suk-yeol handshake with President Joe Biden on April 26, before their joint press conference subsequent to their summit at the White House. (Photograph by Yoon Woon-sik/The Hankyoreh)

In April 2023, South Korean President Yoon Suk-yeol embarked on a six-day state visit to the United States, commemorating the 70th anniversary of South Korea's alliance with the US. The 1953 Mutual Defense Treaty (Korean: 대한민국과 미합중국간의 상호방위조약) between the two nations has been instrumental in shaping South Korea's security strategy since its inception. The alliance has played a pivotal role in providing abundant support and assistance across various domains throughout South Korea's history. Notably, despite evolving roles, financing arrangements, troop numbers, and levels of commitment, the alliance has endured the test of time. The recent Washington Declaration (signed on April 26, 2023) explicitly reaffirmed the US commitment to providing extended nuclear deterrence to South Korea.

Initially, South Korea was a junior partner in the alliance, with support and assistance flowing predominantly in one direction. However, as South Korea transformed into a remarkable economic and technological powerhouse, bilateral relations between the two countries have become more balanced. Consequently, the number of US troops stationed in South Korea has decreased, and the Combined Forces Command (CFC) (Korean:한미연합군사령부) now operates under South Korea's command. Discussions have surfaced about further reducing the US troops or transferring the CFC's wartime command to South Korea. Yet, these proposals have yet to materialize due to concerns that they might signify a weakened US commitment or compromise South Korean security autonomy. Despite South Korea's growing independence in foreign policy, it still relies on the US for its security needs.

The alliance has weathered significant regional changes over the past seven decades, including the normalization of US-China relations, the end of the Cold War, the rise of an assertive China, and North Korea's development as a nuclear and missile power. Throughout these developments, the US and South Korea have maintained a close relationship. While South Korea has occasionally sought greater autonomy in its foreign policy, it has generally refrained from challenging broader US regional interests.

During certain periods, South Korea has experienced concerns about potential abandonment by the US. However, concerted efforts from both countries have helped overcome such crises. For instance, the alliance faced challenges during the Donald Trump administration, which adopted a transactional approach to bilateral relations. The administration demanded increased cost-sharing for US troop presence, seeking a five-fold increase in South Korea's contribution. Although Seoul resolved the issue by raising its spending by 14%, it raised doubts about the enduring nature of US commitment to South Korean security. Additionally, the US expressed dissatisfaction with South Korea's hesitancy, under the Moon Jae-in government, to announce an Indo-Pacific strategy.

Since the inauguration of the new administration in May 2022, South Korea has demonstrated a clear tilt towards the US. The Yoon Suk-yeol administration aligns with US priorities and considers the alliance, bilateral exchanges, and commitments with the US as non-negotiable. Unlike the previous administration, Yoon Suk-yeol believes that inter-Korea relations should not overshadow South Korea's relations with the US. As a result, Seoul seeks improved policy coordination with the US, which has consistently emphasized the link between progress in US-North Korea or South Korea-North Korea relations and denuclearization.

The Washington Declaration solidifies the commitment of both the US and South Korea to further strengthen their alliance. It emphasizes the US security commitment to South Korea amidst North Korea's nuclear and missile advancements. Furthermore, the declaration outlines the establishment of a Nuclear Consultative Group (NCG) to enhance Seoul's involvement in nuclear response planning and coordination. Furthermore, the Alliance will collaborate to facilitate joint implementation and strategizing for the Republic of Korea Armed Forces' (ROK Armed Forces) (Korean:대한민국 국군) conventional assistance to US nuclear operations during a crisis situation. Additionally, efforts will be made to enhance combined exercises and training programs focused on the utilization of nuclear deterrence on the Korean Peninsula. Also, it promises improved bilateral coordination with regard to North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, DPRK) through regular dialogue and communication.

In general, it seems that on the occasion of the alliance's 70th anniversary, Washington and Seoul have strengthened their relations and reaffirmed their commitment to each other. This is undoubtedly a positive outcome. However, it is too early to determine whether this improvement will effectively bolster South Korean security, as the country's increased alignment with the US could potentially jeopardize its relations with China and North Korea.

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IndraStra Global: The Washington Declaration: A New Chapter in US-South Korea Relations
The Washington Declaration: A New Chapter in US-South Korea Relations
By IndraStra Global Editorial Team
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