OPINION | Instrumenting Courts in India

Studying Indian courts poses multiple challenges. A major barrier is the lack of reliable data. Even the Law Commission of India could not get reliable data from trial courts on arrears and delays.

By Alok Prasanna Kumar and Pratik Datta

OPINION | Instrumenting Courts in India


Image Attribute: Supreme Court of India Credit: Ramesh Lalwani. Creative Commons


Studying Indian courts poses multiple challenges. A major barrier is the lack of reliable data. Even the Law Commission of India could not get reliable data from trial courts on arrears and delays. Data from the Supreme Court of India is also not always reliable or consistent. The `Court News' publication of the Supreme Court merely collates the information received from High Courts and publishes it, without verifying the same. Discrepancies are rife in the data, and it has not been updated for nearly two years now. In contrast, advanced jurisdictions have reliable databases on courts. This makes it easier to study courts in those jurisdictions.

What you measure is what you can manage. We are in a vicious cycle of poor information systems feeding into poor management systems which induce poor information systems. 

A new approach

The Supreme Court, all the High Courts and most district courts have their own websites. These websites have information relating to cases for the litigants and the lawyers. They maintain basic information about every case such as: date of listing, orders passed, judges presiding, etc. Since lawyers and litigants use these websites to keep track of their cases, the information is more reliable. Currently, data is not extracted by courts from this information. This information lies scattered, often in qualitative format. Daksh and Vidhi's approach has been to scrape data from these websites. The dataset so far can be found here (in csv format). For more Indian court related data, Daksh's database can be accessed after a one-time free registration. These are important new initiatives, which may mark the beginning of a new phase of rational thinking about court administration in India.

Problems faced

This process has its problems. First, there is no uniform definition of a `case'. A `case' can be counted by:
  1. Counting each numbered petition/appeal as a separate case.
  2. Counting a batch of petition/appeal as one case because they're being heard together.
  3. Counting each petition/appeal and each application/motion filed in that case separately.

Different High Courts have different ways of counting `cases'. This makes comparisons between High Courts difficultSecond, even within the same court, information has been found to be missing or entered incorrectly. For instance, in Vidhi's study, about 5.50% of 49,459 cases contained no information. In 12.38% of cases overall, some information was missing. This problem is compounded because it is not clear if these are mistakes or deliberate omissions (like redaction).

While NIC manages all High Court websites, thy are not uniform in their interfaces and the manner of storing data. Some High Court websites, such as those of GujaratKarnatakaDelhi, and Bombay are relatively easier to access and use.

The root of the problem

A possible explanation for poor data collection by Indian courts lies in the way courts are managed. At the moment, the responsibility for managing courts lies with judges. Court administration (which includes data collection) is not their primary duty however; nor are they equipped or trained to administer courts. Judges are trained for, and should focus their energies on deciding cases.

This situation was sought to be remedied by the court managers scheme. But the scheme flopped. It flopped because it was a superficial reaction to failures of the judicial administration system. The Thirteenth Finance Commission (paragraph 12.87), which proposed the scheme, did not think through the entire implementation process. Who will recruit court managers? What will be their exact job profile? What are the drawbacks of making the scheme optional for each High Court to implement? How will the interactions between court managers and judges play out? Where would the court managers be located in the judicial hierarchy? What is their accountability? At what price point would it attract the right kind of people from the market? These questions were not analysed at the time. International experience on court administration was also not consulted.
International best practice

Internationally, judges do not go about collecting court data; nor is this job blindly delegated to fresh MBAs rechristened as court managers. Instead, there are separate court administration agencies which play an important role in data collection. Here are some examples:

  1. UK has HMCTS.
  2. Australia has Court Services, Victoria.
  3. Canada has Court Administration Service.
  4. USA has the Administrative Office of US Courts.
India has none.

It should be noted that the Supreme Court has repeatedly suggested (since 1997) to the executive to set up a separate administrative agency for tribunals. However, the executive has dragged its feet on this issue, although it acknowledges the present problems of delays and pendency and is keen on reforms.
Conclusion

Computerisation of existing processes will not generate reliable data as we have shown above. The underlying judicial infrastructure and procedures need to be fully overhauled and business processes of courts reengineered to enable generation of reliable data. This will be a large-scale, time consuming and continuous process. This cannot be done only by IT experts (like NIC) or by judges and lawyers. It would require concentrated inter-disciplinary efforts of the highest order leading up to creation of a talented pool of court administrators. For this, India needs a separate court and tribunal administration agency, like in UK, Australia, Canada and USA. Such an agency should have the authority to re-engineer existing procedures to enable automated data collection. A recent paper by one of us, Towards a tribunal services agency, shows a detailed implementation path to establish such an entity for Indian tribunals. This agency can kick off the virtuous cycle of good data feeding into sound management which feeds into good data.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Harish Narasappa, Ramya Tirumalai, Kavya Murthy, Surya Prakash B. S. from Daksh India and Vrinda Bhandari, Advocate, for useful discussions. 

About The Authors:

Alok Prasanna Kumar is a Senior Resident Fellow at Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. 

Pratik Datta is a researcher at NIPFP, New Delhi, India
___________________________________________

This article was originally published at Dr Ajay Shah's Blog on February 2016. 
All Rights Reserved by the Original Publisher.
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,8,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,1,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,83,Africa,108,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,11,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,64,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,43,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,124,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,58,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,20,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,10,Book Review,17,Border Conflicts,7,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,993,C-UAS,1,California,4,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,6,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,74,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,46,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,451,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,14,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,40,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,80,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,4,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,80,COVID,5,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,12,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,104,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,11,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,8,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,2,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,38,Economy,75,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,60,Egypt,24,Elections,28,Electric Vehicle,11,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,308,Energy Policy,27,Energy Politics,24,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,45,ePayments,12,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,3,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,5,European Union,219,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,3,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1136,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,17,Financial Markets,49,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,12,Fishery,3,Food Security,22,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,2,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,14,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,8,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,59,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,2,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,125,Greece,12,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,68,Immigration,17,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,536,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,24,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,3,Indonesia,17,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,5,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,186,Iraq,52,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,119,IT ITeS,131,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,61,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,6,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,LGBTQ,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,12,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,1,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,8,Mali,6,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,39,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,8,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,9,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,51,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,25,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,13,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,30,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,29,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,19,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,44,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,4,New Zealand,5,News,1041,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,21,North America,40,North Korea,48,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,38,Nuclear Agreement,30,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,44,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,340,Oil Gas,5,Oil Price,53,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,117,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,610,Pacific,5,Pakistan,159,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,7,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,4,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,100,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,1,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,13,Reports,37,Repository,1,Republicans,2,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,20,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,267,Russian Navy,4,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,122,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,335,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,3,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,13,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,404,South China Sea,31,South East Asia,61,South Korea,42,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,40,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,21,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,16,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,37,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,15,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,19,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,23,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,22,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,74,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,7,The Middle East,602,Think Tank,287,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,5,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,131,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,93,Ukraine War,6,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,69,United Nations,27,United States,644,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,18,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,12,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,18,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,27,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Xi Jinping,8,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: OPINION | Instrumenting Courts in India
OPINION | Instrumenting Courts in India
Studying Indian courts poses multiple challenges. A major barrier is the lack of reliable data. Even the Law Commission of India could not get reliable data from trial courts on arrears and delays.
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-wuR_oyS2Hmg/VtiI9pANp9I/AAAAAAAAI5o/OcYDbGs02X4/s640/picture-1-supreme-court-india.jpg
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-wuR_oyS2Hmg/VtiI9pANp9I/AAAAAAAAI5o/OcYDbGs02X4/s72-c/picture-1-supreme-court-india.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/03/OPINION-Instrumenting-Courts-in-India-002-03-2016-0005.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/03/OPINION-Instrumenting-Courts-in-India-002-03-2016-0005.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content