Mongolian Dzud: 90% of Country at ‘High Risk

By IndraStra Global News Team


In early 2024, Mongolian herders are confronting periods of intense cold, known as the "dzud," leading to substantial casualties of around 4.7 million livestock animals, according to reports from Mongolia’s Emergency Operations Centre (EOC). This marks the second consecutive year that the nation has grappled with such severe conditions, with roughly 70 percent of the country affected during the previous winter.

The Red Cross has indicated that over 2,250 herder families have lost over 70 percent of their livestock due to this year's dzud, which has covered grazing lands in deep snow and ice. Additionally, there are concerns that many more animals may not survive the harsh conditions in the coming weeks. Approximately 30 percent of Mongolia's population, totaling 3.3 million people, lead a nomadic lifestyle as herders, residing in traditional dwellings called gers or yurts across the expansive open steppes of the country.

Olga Dzhumaeva, who heads the East Asia delegation of the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC), expressed concern over the herders' predicament, highlighting the significant loss of their valuable livestock and the considerable strain on their mental and physical well-being. In a statement issued on Tuesday, Dzhumaeva emphasized the ongoing livestock fatalities, resource depletion, and worsening conditions affecting hundreds of thousands of individuals in Mongolia this winter, underlining the critical need for immediate assistance.

Mongolians are accustomed to enduring frigid temperatures, particularly during the winter spanning from December to March. However, they face the threat of extreme cold, known as dzud, a term in Mongolian indicating disaster.

Dzuds, a unique and gradual disaster specific to Mongolia, represent extreme winter conditions characterized by freezing temperatures, heavy snowfall, and frozen terrain that impedes livestock from reaching grazing areas. Preceded by dry summers with limited pasture availability, these circumstances prevent livestock from accumulating necessary fat reserves for winter survival. According to the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the frequency and severity of dzuds have escalated since 2015 due to exacerbated effects of climate change and inadequate environmental management. 

During dzud episodes, temperatures plummet to as low as minus 50 degrees Celsius (minus 58 Fahrenheit) in certain country regions. This year's dzud has been marked by numerous blizzards, resulting in heavy snowfall. This winter, the combination of a deep snow cover obstructing access to grass (referred to as the "white dzud") and rapid freezing after a brief thaw (known as the "iron dzud") has intensified the crisis. 

This year marks Mongolia's sixth dzud in the past ten years, further straining herders who are still recovering from last year's severe winter that led to the loss of 4.4 million livestock animals. Moreover, a drought during the previous summer left many animals unable to accumulate sufficient fat reserves in preparation for the colder months.

Climate change has disturbed Mongolia's traditional four-season cycle, resulting in an increase in "recurring summer droughts followed by severe winters" since 2015, as noted by Tapan Mishra, the UN resident coordinator in Mongolia, in a statement last month.

According to the Red Cross, the shortage of grazing areas for livestock has forced herders to exhaust their hay and fodder reserves earlier than usual, exacerbating the challenges posed by the severe winter conditions. Official data reveals that Mongolia's livestock population reached approximately 64.7 million animals by the close of 2023. Mongolia is renowned for its diverse livestock breeds, including sheep, cattle, horses, goats, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, and yaks, as documented by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Among these breeds is the Bayad sheep, which has been selectively bred for centuries to endure the harsh Mongolian climate, serving as a vital source of milk, wool, and meat for families.

The substantial loss of livestock has placed significant strain on herder communities, surpassing their preparedness for challenging conditions, as noted by the Red Cross. Bolormaa Nordov, secretary-general of the Mongolian Red Cross Society (MRCS), expressed optimism that the Red Cross's fresh appeal would mitigate the impact of the dzud emergency, offering households enduring solutions for their lives and livelihoods. IFRC's Dzhumaeva stressed the urgency of assistance, highlighting the resilience of Mongolian families amidst adversity, underscoring their unwavering hope and fortitude in facing winter trials.


Download the latest Dzud Response Plan (Dec 2023 – June 2024) (Issued 25 March 2024) published by the UN Country Team in Mongolia / UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs


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IndraStra Global: Mongolian Dzud: 90% of Country at ‘High Risk
Mongolian Dzud: 90% of Country at ‘High Risk
By IndraStra Global News Team
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