Bhutan’s Fourth National Assembly Elections: A Comprehensive Analysis

By IndraStra Global Editorial Team

Cover Image Attribute: Bhutanese people queue up to cast their votes in the national elections in Deothang, Bhutan, on January 9, 2024, | Source: Associated Press
Cover Image Attribute: Bhutanese people queue up to cast their votes in the national elections in Deothang, Bhutan, on January 9, 2024, | Source: Associated Press

Bhutan, nestled amidst the southern Himalayas and flanked by China and India, embarked on its democratic journey in 2008. Last month, on January 9th, 2024, the fourth National Assembly elections marked another significant milestone in the country's political evolution. As one of the 78 nations conducting elections in the same year, Bhutan's electoral process captured global attention, impacting a substantial portion of the world's population. This convergence of elections on such a scale is unprecedented in recorded history and may not recur until 2050.

The electoral landscape of Bhutan witnessed the participation of five political parties in the recent polls, with the People's Democratic Party (PDP) emerging victorious, clinching 30 out of 47 seats in the National Assembly. The Bhutan Tendrel Party (BTP), a newcomer to the political arena, secured the remaining seats, signaling a notable shift in the country's political dynamics. Notably, both the ruling and opposition parties from the previous assembly faced defeat in the primaries, reflecting a pronounced anti-incumbency sentiment among the electorate.

While the PDP's triumph in the second and final round was anticipated, the election results unveiled intriguing trends. Despite securing a significant number of seats, PDP garnered only about 55 percent of the total votes, suggesting considerable support for BTP. The voting pattern revealed a division among constituencies, with PDP dominating the west, south, and central regions, while BTP emerged victorious in most eastern constituencies. The overall voter turnout in the country was 326,775.

First Round

Map Attribute: 2023-24 Bhutanese National Assembly election - First round results by constituency (vote share)

Second Round

2023-24 Bhutanese National Assembly election - Second round results by constituency (vote share, vote date on 2024/01/09)
Map Attribute: 2023-24 Bhutanese National Assembly election - Second round results by constituency (vote share, vote date on 2024/01/09)

Passang Dorji, a former member of Bhutan’s Parliament, discusses how the composition of The National Assembly mirrors Bhutan's rich regional diversity. He highlights the challenge facing future political parties in uniting the electorate across potential divisions along regional lines. Despite constitutional safeguards to mitigate regionalism, historical elections have revealed a tendency for voters to align based on their regional affiliations. This trend is particularly pronounced in the southern region, where its influence significantly shapes electoral outcomes.

One notable narrative that emerged during the elections was the appeal of BTP's president, hailing from the eastern region, as a prime ministerial candidate. This sentiment underscored the desire among eastern constituents for more excellent representation in governance, fueled by concerns over economic disparities. Economic challenges, including youth unemployment, sluggish growth, and demographic shifts, remain pressing issues that demand urgent attention from the newly elected government.

However, the declining voter turnout in recent elections raises concerns regarding democratic participation and legitimacy. While initiatives such as postal ballot facilitation booths have aimed to enhance accessibility, discontinuing such measures in the latest elections may have contributed to voter apathy. Additionally, eligibility criteria for postal voting need revisiting to accommodate Bhutanese citizens living abroad and ensure their active engagement in the electoral process.

The successful transfer of authority post-election highlights Bhutan's steadfast dedication to democratic values, setting its electoral system apart from numerous counterparts across the globe. However, the perpetuation of these democratic principles demands confronting obstacles like voter disengagement and implementing electoral reforms aimed at bolstering public confidence and involvement in governance. Addressing these challenges is crucial to fostering a robust democratic culture that reflects Bhutan's ongoing commitment to democratic governance. This dedication ensures the integrity of the electoral process and enhances citizen participation and trust in the democratic institutions of Bhutan.

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IndraStra Global: Bhutan’s Fourth National Assembly Elections: A Comprehensive Analysis
Bhutan’s Fourth National Assembly Elections: A Comprehensive Analysis
By IndraStra Global Editorial Team
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