Modernizing China's Higher Education System to Cater to Contemporary Real-World Requirements

By Yi Wang, ANBOUND, Beijing, China

Cover Image Attribute: In a file photo from 2020, students in China's Anhui province can be observed studying in a classroom as they begin their National College Entrance Examination, commonly known as the gaokao. The photograph was taken by Zhang Yazi and is featured in China News Service/Getty Images

Amidst various difficulties like the COVID-19 pandemic, sluggish economic growth, and industrial changes, businesses in China, ranging from internet giants to small and medium-sized enterprises and foreign-funded companies, are encountering operational obstacles. The country is presently going through a critical period characterized by a shortage of job opportunities, significantly impacting the younger generation, leading to a lack of appropriate employment options or a decline in job quality.

As the National Bureau of Statistics (国家统计局) reported, the urban unemployment rate among individuals aged 16 to 24 climbed to 20.8% in May 2023, showing a continued increase from the previous month's rate of 20.4%.

The growth of the online platform economy has given rise to various self-employment opportunities, such as social media influencers, ride-hailing drivers, food delivery riders, and others. According to data from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (中华人民共和国人力资源和社会保障部), the number of these "flexible workers" in China has exceeded 200 million. However, many of them admit to facing income unpredictability, which adds to the stress of economic insecurity. Many recent graduates struggle to secure appropriate jobs, so they rely more on their parents for support. The delayed entry of young individuals into the job market also means a postponed transition to adulthood, placing additional financial burdens and responsibilities on aging parents.

The Ministry of Education (中华人民共和国教育部) in the country forecasts that the number of tertiary education graduates for the 2023 academic year will reach 11.58 million, marking a significant increase of 820,000 compared to the previous year and reaching an all-time high. Higher education institutions in China have produced an impressive talent pool, including graduates from universities, colleges, and vocational and technical institutions. However, many of these graduates must be prepared with the skills demanded by the job market, leading to a widening gap between their educational outcomes and employers' expectations. Consequently, it is becoming increasingly common to observe younger individuals facing situations where they possess a degree but struggle to secure employment or attain a satisfactory salary, which highlights the issue of higher education focusing primarily on academic credentials rather than fostering practical knowledge and skills. The traditional education models need more adaptability to keep up with the evolving demands of the labor market.

The speed of technological innovation is swift, with the hottest topic last year being the Metaverse, but this year, it has been replaced by ChatGPT. Over the past two decades, the Internet industry has attracted a significant share of the top talents. However, leading global tech companies like Google, Twitter, and the former Facebook (now known as Meta) are experiencing significant layoffs. The widespread adoption of new technologies is causing shifts in social structures, methods of production, and even the very notion of professions.

A 2019 World Bank report accurately noted that technological advancements revolutionizing our society primarily drive a change like work. Consequently, work's structure, norms, and essence are continuously changing, including the perception of its value. In this modern era, individuals require skills that can adapt and evolve sustainably more urgently than ever. The ability to transition seamlessly between professions, adapt to rapid shifts in the market, and withstand economic uncertainties has become crucial in this new landscape.

Both the education system and the job market must assess the effectiveness and quality of service delivery by considering learning outcomes and skill proficiency. Employers no longer rely solely on a relevant university degree or current expertise when hiring talented individuals; instead, they emphasize a person's adaptability to changing job requirements. From a country's perspective, the social benefits derived from investing in education outweigh those from investing in physical assets. The enhancement of human skills and the potential for creating value are crucial factors linked to future economic and social prosperity. Cultivating skilled talents has become a central aspect of comparing and competing for national strengths. Consequently, China's higher education system requires urgent concept and development model updates.

Globalization has led to greater industry cooperation and a broader movement of workers across regions. The relationship between labor mobility and digital work opportunities has strengthened, with skills acting as a common language for employees. The standardization of occupational skills internationally and the acknowledgment of qualifications have prompted higher education institutions worldwide to increase their openness and embrace globalization, thereby facilitating international exchanges.

The movement of skilled individuals across borders and forming partnerships play vital roles in driving economic growth, fostering international collaboration, and advancing technology. It is essential for China to proactively participate in extensive exchanges and cooperation in vocational education with both developed and developing nations, facilitating the sharing of ideas and best practices. By engaging in diverse dialogues and communication related to talent development in vocational skills, China can strengthen its ties with global industries and trade, forge deeper partnerships with foreign counterparts, attract foreign investments into emerging sectors, and ultimately achieve its objectives of high-quality growth.

Enhancing skills is essential for long-term progress in employment and living standards. Social progress involves more than just competing for limited resources; it is about expanding equitable development and creating greater opportunities for everyone to prosper and enhance their livelihoods. The responsibility for ensuring the quality of vocational education and skill development extends beyond vocational institutions. It has become a significant endeavor that impacts various job roles and contributes to national income and societal well-being.

As society advances, higher education institutions have a vital role in imparting individuals essential technical knowledge and skills. These institutions collaborate with lifelong learning programs and diverse vocational training opportunities, offering workers various pathways to improve their expertise. Irrespective of their life stage, individuals have chances for skill development, career progression, and social upward mobility, promoting social harmony and inclusive progress. The rapid urbanization in China has given rise to regional economic clusters, with science and technology cities experiencing rapid growth. Consequently, the competition for highly skilled labor and innovative talents has intensified in these areas.

In light of the present conditions in China's job market, the youth encounter significant hurdles. Tackling these challenges necessitates a holistic strategy that involves aligning skills education with the evolving demands of the job market, implementing job training programs to improve expertise, and promoting international cooperation. By embracing this approach, China can cultivate a sustainable and competent workforce, propel technological progress, and contribute to the nation's overall economic and social well-being.

About the Author

Yi Wang (ORCID 0009-0003-2372-6920) is the Head of the Global Development Program at the Beijing-based think tank ANBOUND. 

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IndraStra Global: Modernizing China's Higher Education System to Cater to Contemporary Real-World Requirements
Modernizing China's Higher Education System to Cater to Contemporary Real-World Requirements
By Yi Wang, ANBOUND, Beijing, China
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