Khātam-Kari — Story of Handcrafted Persian Art

By Bhawna Ahuja

The Art of Khātam-Kari — Story of Handcrafted Persian Art
Cover Image Attribute: Detail from a Khātam-Kari marquetry, a typical type of work on wood from Iran (May 2006) / Source: Fabienkhan (Wikimedia Commons)

Khātam-Kari or Khātam-Bandi is an example of a Persian art form that dates back centuries. It is a kind of marquetry in which art forms are created by embellishing the surface of wooden products with delicate bits of wood, bone, and metal that have complicated geometric patterns perfectly carved into them.


The Origin


This technique is at least 700 years old and may have been drawn from prototypes developed in Byzantine times. In his work, Cosmati often includes enlarged variations of designs that belong to the same family. For example, the cloisters of San Giovanni in Laterano in Rome date to the thirteenth century, and one of the tombs is decorated with an extensive panel of this sort. Additional examples can be found in the San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura church, which is located in Rome. Also, these patterns can be found in Plate 30 of Jones' Grammar of Ornament, where they belong to the Byzantine period.[1]


Later, the Iranian cities of Isfahan, Shiraz, and Kerman were fertile ground for the development of the art of marquetry during the reign of the Safavid dynasty (1501-1736 A.D.). The rooms in the Saadabad Palace and the Marble Palace in Tehran are decorated with inlaid work and are among the finest examples of this art form.


The Design Concept


The process of designing inlaid pieces is quite laborious and time-consuming. A work of ordinary quality may have more than 400 pieces per square inch.[2] Long bunches were formed by gluing thin rods of various colored kinds of wood, ivory, bone, brass, silver, and other materials. The cross-section of these long bunches could be round, rectangular, or polygonal. Around 250 separate parts can end up aligned next to one another in every cubic centimeter after sanding, oiling, and polished. Inlaid objects took on a new and significant significance during the Safavid era when artists created works of art of the highest value.


The Khātam-Kari patterns are based on a modular system consisting of three shapes: a rhombus with angles 60 and 120, the two triangles produced by bisecting the rhombus along its diagonals: an equilateral triangle, and a 30–120–30 isosceles triangle. The rhombus has angles 60 and 120, and the triangles have angles 30–120–30.[1]


Image Attribute: Modules and hierarchies in Khātam-Kari pattern construction / Source: Cromwell, P.R

These simple forms are combined to create larger versions of themselves (b and c) and a regular hexagon (d). The forms in this extended set can be pieced together to generate 6-pointed stars of the type "6/26/2" (e and f), which can then be padded out to form larger hexagons (g and h). This assembly process can be repeated indefinitely. In addition, it is possible to repeat the procedure using composite shapes, also known as bundles, to produce larger copies of the same simple forms with increasing internal complexity.[1]


The Making




References:


[1] Cromwell, P.R. Modularity and Hierarchy in Persian Geometric Ornament. Nexus Netw J 18, 7–54 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-015-0280-6


[2] Wulff, H. E. 1966. The Traditional Crafts of Persia. The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.


About the Author:


Bhawna Ahuja is a Culture & Lifestyle Editor and Head-Content & Communications at IndraStra Global. She is a "Human Psychology" driven Digital Entrepreneur with more than eight years of experience in Digital Marketing, Social Media, Public Relations & Insights Management. She can be reached on her Youtube ChannelInstagramTwitter, and Linkedin.


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IndraStra Global: Khātam-Kari — Story of Handcrafted Persian Art
Khātam-Kari — Story of Handcrafted Persian Art
By Bhawna Ahuja
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