Explainer: What is Quantum Machine Learning and How Can it Help Us?

By Betony Adams, Francesco Petruccione, and Maria Schuld (University of KwaZulu-Natal)

By Betony Adams, Francesco Petruccione, and Maria Schuld
University of KwaZulu-Natal

Explainer: What is Quantum Machine Learning and How Can it Help Us?

Image Attribute: Pixabay.com

Artificial intelligence refers, among other things, to machines’ capacity to demonstrate some degree of what humans consider “intelligence”. This process is being driven by the rapid advancement of machine learning: getting machines to think for themselves rather than pre-programming them with an absolute concept.

Take image recognition. Humans excel at this task, but it’s proved difficult to simulate artificially. Training a machine to recognize a cat doesn’t mean inputting a set definition of what a cat looks like. Instead, many different images of cats are inputted; the aim is that the computer learns to distill the underlying “cat-like” pattern of pixels.

This dependence on data is a powerful training tool. But it comes with potential pitfalls. If machines are trained to find and exploit patterns in data then, in certain instances, they only perpetuate the race, gender or class prejudices specific to current human intelligence.

But the data-processing facility inherent to machine learning also has the potential to generate applications that can improve human lives. “Intelligent” machines could help scientists to more efficiently detect cancer or better understand mental health.

Most of the progress in machine learning so far has been classical: the techniques that machines use to learn to follow the laws of classical physics. The data they learn from has a classical form. The machines on which the algorithms run are also classical.

We work in the emerging field of quantum machine learning, which is exploring whether the branch of physics called quantum mechanics might improve machine learning. Quantum mechanics is different from classical physics on a fundamental level: it deals in probabilities and makes a principle out of uncertainty. Quantum mechanics also expands physics to include interesting phenomena which cannot be explained using classical intuition.


From classical to quantum


Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics that attempts to understand and apply mathematical, verifiable rules to the behavior of nature at the smallest end of the spectrum – on the scale of atoms, electrons, and photons. It was first developed at the beginning of the 20th century and has been very successful in describing systems on the microscopic level.

The fundamental divide between the quantum and classical worlds has been popularised by the Schrodinger’s cat thought experiment. In it, a cat is sealed in a box along with a vial of poison and a radioactive atom. The release of the poison – and the cat’s life – depends on the decay of the atom.

Quantum mechanics allows the atom to be described as simultaneously decayed or undecayed until a measurement forces it into an exact state. But it then should follow that the cat can be described as both dead and alive at the same time until the box is opened and the state of the cat made certain. The paradox illustrates the difficulty of applying quantum rules to classical objects.

This is one of the more fascinating possibilities inherent in quantum theory: that it is possible for a quantum system to be in more than one state at the same time – a phenomenon described as a superposition – until that system is measured.

Quantum computing


There are several ways in which machine learning might be made quantum. Of these, it’s the race to create a quantum computer that’s dominated the popular press and seen the development of contenders like the D-Wave computer and the IBM Quantum Experience.

Quantum computers’ value would lie in their ability to process information and perform computational tasks differently, and in some instances more quickly, than classical computers.

Despite the commercial interest, none of the contenders are an outright success yet. That’s because the phenomena they’re drawing from in quantum mechanics, such as superposition states, are delicate and prone to destruction.

Other branches of quantum machine learning focus on how quantum theory might inform the methods that computers use to learn, or the data they learn from, as well as fine-tuning the tools and techniques of classical machine learning in a quantum framework.

While measurable outcomes are still mostly in the realm of theory, quantum machine learning does have everyday implications for ordinary people. It has long been predicted that the processing power of quantum computers could render current encryption techniques used in banking or other online transactions ineffective.

More recently, quantum machine learning techniques such as annealing have shown business promise by optimizing the yields of financial assets or the calculation of credit ratings.

Quantum techniques in machine learning are also likely to become important in medical technology or drug design as the principles which underpin chemistry are fundamentally quantum. ProteinQure, a biotech company founded in 2017, already uses elements of quantum computation to engineer new therapies.

Quantum machine learning techniques are likely to have far-reaching effects on many of the technologies we have become accustomed to, from aviation to agriculture, with companies such as Lockheed Martin, NASA, and Google already on board.

Quantum machine learning in Africa


Quantum machine learning is an exciting, rapidly growing field. A number of start-ups have been established that aim to perfect the process and deliver scalable quantum devices.

Academics and university researchers are also working to harness the potential of quantum machine learning. We are among them. The University of KwaZulu-Natal’s quantum research group investigates both how quantum theory might improve machine learning and how machine learning techniques can inform quantum theory.

Dr. Maria Schuld, who is part of the group, recently shared headlines with IBM and US university MIT for an important advancement in the quantum enhancement of kernel-based machine learning methods.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

About the Authors:

Betony Adams
Ph.D. student in Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal

Francesco Petruccione
Professor, University of KwaZulu-Natal

Maria Schuld
Researcher, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,8,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,83,Africa,109,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,6,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,2,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,2,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,2,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,10,Asia,65,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,45,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,124,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,58,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,20,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,11,Book Review,18,Border Conflicts,9,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,17,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1026,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,6,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,74,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,47,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,471,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,15,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,42,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,9,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,81,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,2,COP26,4,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,14,Counter Terrorism,80,COVID,7,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,13,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,5,Currency,7,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,105,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Center,1,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,11,Decision Support System,5,Defense,10,Defense Deals,6,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,8,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,2,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,40,Economy,77,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,4,Education,61,Egypt,24,Elections,30,Electric Vehicle,11,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,311,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,25,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,46,ePayments,12,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,3,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,7,European Union,221,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,4,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1172,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,17,Financial Markets,49,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,12,Fishery,3,Food Security,23,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,3,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,21,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,9,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,61,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,2,Google,15,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,130,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,29,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,69,Immigration,17,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,551,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,24,Indian Ocean,17,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,3,Indonesia,17,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,6,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,8,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,189,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,120,IT ITeS,131,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,63,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,LGBTQ,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,13,Lifestyle,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,8,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,39,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,10,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,9,Military-Industrial Complex,2,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,52,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,25,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,13,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,30,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,30,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,20,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,45,Navigation,2,Navy,22,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,5,News,1069,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,22,North America,41,North Korea,49,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,38,Nuclear Agreement,31,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,44,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,356,Oil Gas,6,Oil Price,61,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,128,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,619,Pacific,5,Pakistan,160,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,40,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,7,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,109,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,16,Reports,39,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,20,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,275,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,13,Saudi Arabia,123,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,341,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,5,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,13,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,13,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,411,South China Sea,31,South East Asia,61,South Korea,42,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,41,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,22,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,19,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,40,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,17,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,4,Syria,111,Taiwan,20,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,1,Taxation,23,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,23,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,74,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,7,The Middle East,614,Think Tank,294,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,10,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,132,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,98,Ukraine War,10,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,71,United Nations,27,United States,661,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,19,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,12,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,27,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: Explainer: What is Quantum Machine Learning and How Can it Help Us?
Explainer: What is Quantum Machine Learning and How Can it Help Us?
By Betony Adams, Francesco Petruccione, and Maria Schuld (University of KwaZulu-Natal)
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Wx-HrNdgQeQ/XLhMw4id35I/AAAAAAAAC-Y/H8VB-THF-3cWORVdseRlMk0aulw4qc17QCLcBGAs/s640/quantum-computer-3679893_960_720.jpg
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Wx-HrNdgQeQ/XLhMw4id35I/AAAAAAAAC-Y/H8VB-THF-3cWORVdseRlMk0aulw4qc17QCLcBGAs/s72-c/quantum-computer-3679893_960_720.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2019/04/What-is-Quantum-Machine-Learning-005-04-2019-0051.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2019/04/What-is-Quantum-Machine-Learning-005-04-2019-0051.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content