A Brief Note on India's Defense Manufacturing Sector

By IndraStra Global Editorial Team

By IndraStra Global Editorial Team

A Brief Note on India's Defense Manufacturing Sector

Image Attribute: HAL Tejas on tarmac / Source: DRDO

On June 12, 2018, India’s Minister of State for Defence Subhash Bhamre announced the launch of second defense innovation center to be based at the city of Nashik, strategically situated within the vicinity of Mumbai and Pune. Both the cities have vibrant industrial manufacturing zones, with a capability to become integrated into the current supply chains of major original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) present in these zones.

Earlier in January 2018, India's Union Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the establishment of first defense innovation center in the city of Coimbatore.  She issued a directive for the release of ₹20 crore (approx. US$ 3 Million) to the Coimbatore District Small Industries Association (CODISSIA) for the same.

The Indian defense industry's import-export ratio is inferior to countries with a much smaller defense industrial base. The ambitious 'Make in India' policy for the defense sector aims to reverse the current imbalance between the import of defense equipment and indigenous manufacture of defense equipment without adversely affecting the requirements, capability, and preparedness of the end-user, which happens to Indian armed forces. Therefore, the creation of such defense innovation hubs is a way to achieve self-reliance and reducing dependence on foreign countries in defense-related procurements, which is a necessity today for India rather than a choice, both for strategic and economic reasons.

The Defence Procurement Procedure 2016 (DPP-2016) had introduced specific provisions in order to promote indigenous design and development of defense equipment, such as, "Buy-IDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)" category of acquisition which has been accorded the topmost priority. At the same time, the country envisions domestic defense industry gets integrated with the global defense equipment supply chain.

During the last three financial years and current year (up to November 30, 2017), 119 contracts involving ₹1,16,523 crore have been signed with Indian vendors and 68 contracts involving ₹1,24,291 crore have been signed with foreign vendors for capital procurement of Defence equipment for Armed forces including rockets, simulator and component level repair facility for Tanks from Russia, Laser Designation Pods, radars, Pods for aircraft Radios, Weapons for Garud Commando Force and Missiles from Israel, Aircraft, Helicopters, Missiles, Artillery Guns and Simulators from USA and Aircraft, Ammunition, High Zone Modules of Bi-Modular Charges from 155mm Guns from France.  

According to the minister, this new "second" innovation center at Nashik will provide a platform to various Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), start-ups and innovators in the field of defense innovation, which, in turn, will boost the manufacturing of products and components for the defense-end users like Army, Indian Air Force, and Indian Navy.

Also, he added "The government will give them orders if their prototype is selected by them. The government will also bear expenses even though the prototype of defence products is not selected by the end users"

OFFSET BONUS

It is important to note that the Government of India actually pays for the offsets as no OEM can or will be able to bear the programme cost. The policy exists to build a defense industrial base in the country. Given the massive acquisition programs India has embarked upon, the "offset policy" is intended to act as catalytic element towards the building robust defense manufacturing bases in the country.

However, it is mandatory for foreign OEMs to collaborate with an Indian Offset Partner (IOP) in the form of joint ventures or through the non-equity route — to plan sourcing, co-production arrangements, technical collaborations, etc. The OEM/vendor/Tier-I sub-vendor will be free to select the IOP for implementing the offset obligation provided the IOP has not been barred from doing business by India's Ministry of Defence (MoD).

The offset obligation from a large contract is split up into an annual program, where if the value for a given year is not satisfied a penalty of 5% is applied to the shortfall for that year, without changing the total obligation of 30%.
Chart Attribute: The Defence Offset Policy, Page No: 6, Defence Procurement Procedure 2016 (DPP-2016), Ministry of Defence, India / IndraStra Global AIDN00407020180004/C1

Chart Attribute: The Defence Offset Policy, Page No: 6, Defence Procurement Procedure 2016 (DPP-2016), Ministry of Defence, India / IndraStra Global AIDN00407020180004/C1

The Indian offset rules require the free transfer of both technology and machines to the IOP. The IOP must therefore also be assisted to attain the required levels of production and quality. Insisting that the IOP pay royalties for your technology are not allowed, nor can a foreign OEM forbid its IOP from selling to foreign OEM's competitors, either in India or abroad, or from copying your machines to create a second factory in India. In compensation for this transfer of technology (ToT), India's MoD grants an "offset bonus" of 10% against the IOP’s Indian added value. This is famously known as  — "1:1 multiplier".

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI)

There have been multiple revision in DPP 2016 to introduce "Make-I" and "Make-II" processes, the introduction of Strategic Partnership Model, increase in FDI through automatic route to 49%, restricting licensing requirements for critical items, denotifying several items previously produced only by Ordnance Factory Boards (OFBs) for production by industry etc.

The current administration aims to increase the foreign direct investment (FDI) cap from the current 49 percent to 74 percent in such technologies, according to a draft Defence Production Policy 2018 released by the MoD in March 2018. As of now, anything over the existing limit is allowed on a case-to-case basis on approval by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) approval and license are granted in consultation with the MoD.

THE FUTURE

The draft policy comes at a time when India has been ranked the world’s largest importer of weapons for the 10th straight year by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). The imports have increased by 24 percent over the last 10 years.

Focused Weapons Platforms

Under, draft DPP 2018, India aims to boost indigenous defense production - as per the policy, by 2025, the country has to be self-reliant in 13 weapons platforms. It includes fighter aircraft, warships, tanks, missiles, and artillery, which constitute the bulk of India’s imports. Also, the policy plans on setting up Defence Export Organisation in partnership with the industry. This will facilitate for overseas marketing of domestically produced defense products and components.

Streamlining the Defense Offset Policy

As far as "offset bonus" is concerned, draft DPP 2018 mentions about the necessary stimulus for IOPs, so that they can take up the export of defense products and components developed as part of offset process. Also, new investment-linked avenues for the discharge of offset obligations will be made available which will also enable certainty and quick discharge of offsets. Besides that, an "Offsets Ombudsman" will be set up to resolve issues arising from claims of offset in a fair, speedy and transparent manner.

Exploring the applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

In February 2018, The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Task Force of the MoD was constituted to study the strategic implications of AI in national security perspective and in a global context. The same was emphasized in draft DPP 2018 - "(AI & Robotics) are arguably the most important determinants of defensive and offensive capabilities for any defence force in the future."  

This particular task force is a multi-stakeholder group led by Tata Sons Chairman N. Chandrasekaran and comprises members from government, services, academia, industry, and start-ups.

In the last meeting (which was held on April 28, 2018), it was discussed that one of the key approaches for the use of AI is to work on building a profile that mimics normal behavior by learning from the data generated from a given use case. Then using machine learning/ deep learning techniques, one can draw correlations among various parameters in an automated way (from the huge dataset) and can flag pattern and anomalous behavior for further analysis and insights. This essentially forms the basis for AI-based applications.

On June 2, 2018, The task force handed over the final report to MoD, to accept it and to implement its recommendations

Cite this Article:

Editorial Team, IG., "A Brief Note on India's Defense Manufacturing Sector" IndraStra Global, Vol. 04 (Issue No: 07) 2018, 0004, https://www.indrastra.com/2018/07/Brief-Note-on-India-s-Defense-Manufacturing-Sector-004-07-2018-0004.html | ISSN 2381-3652
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,6,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,18,Activism,1,ADB,10,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,1,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,79,Africa,106,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,13,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,3,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,3,Al Shabab,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,10,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,63,Asia Pacific,21,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,42,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,123,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,56,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,13,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,47,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,29,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,30,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,18,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,8,Book Review,16,Border Conflicts,4,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,927,C-UAS,1,California,3,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,5,Cameroon,1,Canada,44,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,7,CAREC,1,Caribbean,8,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,71,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,44,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,417,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,60,Climate Change,9,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,39,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,72,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,3,Coronavirus,102,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,77,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,7,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,11,CSTO,1,Cuba,5,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,103,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,7,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,1,Database,1,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,8,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,3,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,1,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,1,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,4,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,38,Economy,61,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,59,Egypt,23,Elections,27,Electric Vehicle,10,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,11,Energy,304,Energy Policy,27,Energy Politics,23,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,44,ePayments,7,Epidemic,5,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,2,Eurasia,3,Euro,5,Europe,4,European Union,210,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,2,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1048,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,16,Financial Markets,47,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,10,Fishery,3,Food Security,18,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,11,Forex,1,France,25,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,5,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,2,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,7,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,102,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,55,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Global Trade,87,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,1,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,123,Greece,12,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,5,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,6,Healthcare,70,Helicopter,9,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,1,Hong Kong,6,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,10,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,3,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,65,Immigration,15,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,513,India's,1,Indian Air Force,17,Indian Army,4,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,22,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,2,Indonesia,15,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,3,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,7,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,30,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,183,Iraq,52,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,116,IT ITeS,128,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,55,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,7,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,6,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,2,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,20,Languages,1,Laos,1,Latin America,76,Law,4,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,12,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,1,Lugansk,1,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,6,Mali,4,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,37,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metals,1,Mexico,8,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,98,Military Exercise,8,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,47,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,4,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,23,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,12,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,26,Natural Disasters,9,Natural Gas,26,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,17,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,42,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,Negotiations,1,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,4,New Zealand,5,News,951,Newspaper,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,21,North America,37,North Korea,47,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,35,Nuclear Agreement,29,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,43,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,310,Oil Gas,4,Oil Price,38,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,101,Open Access,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,604,Pacific,5,Pakistan,150,Pakistan Air Force,2,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Pandemic,82,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,4,Peacekeeping Mission,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,10,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,6,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,157,Prison System,1,Privacy,15,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,4,Protests,7,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,5,Putin,3,Q&A,1,Qatar,86,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,2,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,1,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,1,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,12,Reports,34,Repository,1,Republicans,2,Rescue Operation,1,Research,3,Research and Development,19,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,3,Robotics,8,Rohingya,4,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,225,Russian Navy,4,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,120,Science & Technology,323,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,1,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,11,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,388,South China Sea,30,South East Asia,57,South Korea,40,South Sudan,3,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,37,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,18,Stamps,1,Startups,43,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,14,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,2,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,35,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,14,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,14,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,15,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,22,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,21,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,72,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,6,The Middle East,595,Think Tank,274,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,38,Travel and Tourism,4,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,1,UAE,129,UAV,19,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,67,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,65,United Nations,26,United States,599,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,4,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,1,USA,16,USAF,18,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,11,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,17,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,9,Wearable,2,Weather,1,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,16,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,1,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,23,World Economy,21,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Xi Jinping,7,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: A Brief Note on India's Defense Manufacturing Sector
A Brief Note on India's Defense Manufacturing Sector
By IndraStra Global Editorial Team
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8D_1AUNqqYs/Wzp8zzGI4gI/AAAAAAAATug/sao9L7jgvPw-igBHWeEaHI2CJZ8YeJSzQCLcBGAs/s640/drdo_expo%2B%25281%2529.jpg
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8D_1AUNqqYs/Wzp8zzGI4gI/AAAAAAAATug/sao9L7jgvPw-igBHWeEaHI2CJZ8YeJSzQCLcBGAs/s72-c/drdo_expo%2B%25281%2529.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2018/07/Brief-Note-on-India-s-Defense-Manufacturing-Sector-004-07-2018-0004.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2018/07/Brief-Note-on-India-s-Defense-Manufacturing-Sector-004-07-2018-0004.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content