Ryanair’s Second Coming: How LCCs Affect the Economy

Is Coming of the Low Cost Airlines Actually Good for the Country?

By Dr. Volodymyr Bilotkach
Member of the VoxUkraine Editorial Board

Image Attribute: RyanAir's Boeing 737-800 landing / Source: Piotr Kozmin

Image Attribute: RyanAir's Boeing 737-800 landing / Source: Piotr Kozmin

The second coming of Ryanair to Ukraine is considered by most as a welcome news, not least because of expectation of low fares this carrier is famous for. Ryanair is the largest European company in the group of airlines commonly referred to as Low-Cost Carriers (LCCs). There is no universally accepted definition of an LCC, and some of the sources of the LCCs’ cost advantages are related to their business models as compared to the so-called Full-Service Carriers.

For instance, full-service carriers’ operations are considerably more complex than those of LCCs. FSCs operate networks that require more sophisticated technology to ensure that passengers and their luggage are able to connect between flights in the airline’s network, whereas most airlines classified as LCCs only perform point-to-point operations.

Network complexity also necessitates using different aircraft types, which implies that FSCs will have higher maintenance costs than LCCs, other things being equal. Use of a single aircraft type will generally limit the kinds of markets an airline will be able to serve – if your fleet only includes Boeing-737 aircraft, for instance, you will likely be unable to profitably serve smaller cities. Airlines that have been operating in the pre-liberalization era tend to also have more complex and rigid labor relationships than younger carriers. This will mean higher labor cost and/or less flexibility when an FSC has to come up with ways to generate savings in this category. Established network carriers often have to deal with strong labor unions, which sometimes do not hesitate to use industrial actions to obtain a better deal with their airline.

In Europe, LCCs have been able to reach about 35 percent market share. Figure 1 below shows that two out of the top-5 airlines in Europe (Ryanair and easyJet) are LCCs. Furthermore, Norwegian, Wizzair (Europe’s 6th and 9th largest airlines, respectively) have over the last decade been the fastest growing carriers in Europe.

Figure 1. Top European Airlines by Passenger Volume (Eurostat Data)

Figure 1. Top European Airlines by Passenger Volume (Eurostat Data)

Note: Passenger volume is in millions

Generally speaking, Low-Cost Airlines have made air travel possible for millions of people, who would otherwise never dream about stepping on board an airplane. These carriers have been instrumental in the development of tourism (according to IATA, nearly half of all tourists worldwide travel to their destinations by air), made it possible for migrant workers to see their friends and relatives more frequently, and put some smaller communities on the map. Overall, I welcome any market developments which lead to a more competitive environment in the airline industry and create more choice for passengers. Ryanair’s entry into Ukraine is, of course, a step in this direction. But, can LCC entry have negative consequences?

Potential negative effects of LCC entry can include deterioration of service quality (and generally disappearance of higher-end product options); and disruption of FSCs’ networks. Moreover, low-cost carriers do not tend to increase the airport’s connectivity as much as the network airlines do. And, last but not least, we can suspect that LCCs might contribute less than FSCs to making a respective urban area a more attractive place for multinational firms to locate their regional subsidiaries in. Let us review these points in more detail.

Potential negative effects of LCC entry can include deterioration of service quality (and generally disappearance of higher-end product options); and disruption of FSCs’ networks.

LCCs are associated with lower service standards as compared to FSCs. When traveling with Ryanair or Wizzair, one can expect basic levels of service, charges for checked luggage and onboard meals, snacks and drinks, lack of customer loyalty programs, etc. This proposition is more attractive to price-conscious leisure traveler than to business passengers, who tend to prioritize schedule convenience. Moreover, on average LCCs offer lower flight frequency as compared to FSCs. This further makes such services less attractive to business travelers. From my perspective, availability of both morning, afternoon, and evening flights with KLM makes it possible, for instance, to return home from a business trip in the evening instead of spending an extra night at the destination. With EasyJet or Ryanair, I would have to adjust to the airline’s schedule, while with KLM I know there will be a flight option convenient to my schedule. Additionally, KLM offers connecting flights to destinations all over the world, while with Ryanair and EasyJet I can only reach a handful of destinations to which the airlines fly non-stop.

The above considerations are not a major problem unless LCCs operations disrupt the FSCs’ networks. It is one thing to have both business-friendly and leisure-friendly products co-existing on the market; but if business-friendly product disappears, we may have a problem. For instance, Malev Hungarian Airlines went bankrupt in February 2012. While we cannot point to Wizzair as the sole cause for Malev’s bankruptcy (the carrier had a number of issues with its business strategy and management); development of Wizzair at Budapest airport was definitely a contributing factor. Following this bankruptcy, flight frequency on most routes declined (despite a post-bankruptcy expansion of Wizzair and entry of Ryanair). Nevertheless, my research demonstrated that lower fares have in most cases more than adequately compensated the passengers for lower service frequency. The scale of current Wizzair’s and projected Ryanair’s presence on Ukrainian market is fairly modest to suggest that it can threaten UIA’s network.

Lower fares have in most cases more than adequately compensated the passengers for lower service frequency. The scale of current Wizzair’s and projected Ryanair’s presence on Ukrainian market is fairly modest to suggest that it can threaten UIA’s network.

Given that most LCCs offer point-to-point services (while Ryanair started experimenting with offering connecting flights, it is presently far from what the network airlines such as KLM or Lufthansa offer); additional LCC services do not add much to airport’s connectivity. A flight to a hub airport (such as the recently launched Qatar Airways’ service to Doha) connects Kyiv with the rest of the world (or large part of the world, at least); while a Ryanair flight to London connects Lviv only to London.

Academic literature suggests that a well-connected airport makes a respective urban area an attractive place for large multinational firms to do business. For instance, Microsoft chose to locate its European HQ next to Amsterdam Schiphol airport, taking advantage of several non-stop Amsterdam-Seattle flights, and also the ability to quickly and efficiently connect via Amsterdam to pretty much any destination in Europe. Another study demonstrates that new non-stop services by low-cost carriers do not have an impact on regional exports, whereas the new FSC flights do. That is, the available evidence shows that if authorities are interested in using connectivity provided by aviation as a tool to boost business in the area; they should focus on attracting full-service network airlines rather than LCCs. Low-Cost Carriers tend to be used by leisure travelers, and attracting LCCs is a good way to develop both inbound and outbound tourism.

To conclude, both full service and low-cost carriers play their roles in the development of commercial aviation. We, however, need to clearly understand that these roles are different. Network full-service carriers connect cities to the rest of the world and increase urban areas’ attractiveness to businesses. Low-cost carriers connect cities to a handful of destinations and primarily serve to increase leisure traffic. I do not suggest that one is better than the other, and new airlines’ entry should be encouraged, provided they are willing to compete fairly. We should, in the end, strive for balanced growth of aviation, making sure that a wide range of services is available to passengers.

This article was first published at VoxUkraine.org. Republished at IndraStra.com under Creative Commons NoDerivatives License, provided by the Original Publisher. 

About the Author:

Dr. Volodymyr Bilotkach is a VoxUkraine Editorial Board member. He is currently working as a Senior Lecturer in Economics at  Newcastle University (Since 2012). He has previously taught at the University of California, Irvine, and Northumbria University; and held short-time appointments with Kyiv School of Economics, Korea University, ZEW in Mannheim, and Hiroshima University. Dr. Bilotkach is Associate Editor of Journal of Air Transport Management and serves on Editorial Board of Research in Transportation Economics. He is also the author of the book "Economics of Airlines", published by Agenda Publishing in September 2017.

About VoxUkraine:

VoxUkraine is an independent and unbiased analytical platform, founded and headed by a team of experienced and highly skilled economists and lawyers working in Ukraine and abroad. The purpose of VoxUkraine is to support economic reforms in the country through the promotion of research-based economic policy analysis, independent assessment of economic transformations, monitoring, and integration of Ukraine into the global network of economists and political leaders.
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,6,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,11,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,1,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,81,Africa,108,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,3,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,3,Al Shabab,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,11,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,63,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,43,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,123,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,57,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,29,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,19,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,10,Book Review,17,Border Conflicts,5,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,973,C-UAS,1,California,4,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,5,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,73,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,45,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,439,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,13,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,39,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,78,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,3,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,79,COVID,5,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,7,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,11,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,103,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,10,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,7,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,1,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,38,Economy,69,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,60,Egypt,23,Elections,28,Electric Vehicle,10,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,306,Energy Policy,27,Energy Politics,23,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,45,ePayments,11,Epidemic,5,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,2,Eurasia,3,Euro,5,Europe,5,European Union,214,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,3,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1103,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,16,Financial Markets,47,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,11,Fishery,3,Food Security,22,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,1,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,9,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,7,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,56,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,1,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,124,Greece,12,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,67,Immigration,16,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,527,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,22,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,2,Indonesia,16,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,4,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,31,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,184,Iraq,52,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,117,IT ITeS,129,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,56,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,6,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,12,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,1,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,7,Mali,5,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,37,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,8,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,8,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,51,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,24,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,12,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,29,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,28,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,17,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,42,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,Negotiations,1,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,4,New Zealand,5,News,1007,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,21,North America,37,North Korea,48,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,37,Nuclear Agreement,29,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,43,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,330,Oil Gas,5,Oil Price,50,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,114,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,609,Pacific,5,Pakistan,156,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,7,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,4,Protests,7,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,97,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,2,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,1,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,1,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,13,Reports,35,Repository,1,Republicans,2,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,19,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,258,Russian Navy,4,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,121,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,330,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,2,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,11,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,398,South China Sea,30,South East Asia,59,South Korea,41,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,39,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,20,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,15,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,37,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,14,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,16,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,15,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,22,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,21,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,73,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,7,The Middle East,601,Think Tank,286,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,4,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,1,UAE,130,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,90,Ukraine War,4,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,67,United Nations,27,United States,629,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,18,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,11,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,17,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,27,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Xi Jinping,8,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: Ryanair’s Second Coming: How LCCs Affect the Economy
Ryanair’s Second Coming: How LCCs Affect the Economy
Is Coming of the Low Cost Airlines Actually Good for the Country?
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Hq7RsVr1x0c/WtmTlFD8SHI/AAAAAAAATT0/4n-dyvalE5gyvTFHzdTenihUueLX2jq8gCLcBGAs/s640/image-31.jpeg
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Hq7RsVr1x0c/WtmTlFD8SHI/AAAAAAAATT0/4n-dyvalE5gyvTFHzdTenihUueLX2jq8gCLcBGAs/s72-c/image-31.jpeg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2018/04/RyanAir-s-Second-Coming-Ukraine-004-04-2018-0024.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2018/04/RyanAir-s-Second-Coming-Ukraine-004-04-2018-0024.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content