Three Researchers Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Creating 'Google Earth for Molecules'

Cover Image Attribute: Richard Henderson, one of the 2017 Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry, holds a bacterio rhodopsin model prior to a pres...

Richard Henderson, one of the 2017 Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry, holds a bacterio rhodopsin model prior to a press conference at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, Wednesday, Oct. 4, 2017. Three researchers based in the U.S., U.K. and Switzerland won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday for developments in electron microscopy. The 9-million-kronor ($1.1 million) prize is shared by Jacques Dubochet of the University of Lausanne, Joachim Frank at New York's Columbia University and Richard Henderson of MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, Britain. (AP Photo/Frank Augstein)
Cover Image Attribute: Richard Henderson, one of the 2017 Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry, holds a bacterio rhodopsin model prior to a press conference at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, Wednesday, Oct. 4, 2017. Three researchers based in the U.S., U.K. and Switzerland won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday for developments in electron microscopy. The 9-million-kronor ($1.1 million) prize is shared by Jacques Dubochet of the University of Lausanne, Joachim Frank at New York's Columbia University and Richard Henderson of MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, Britain. (AP Photo/Frank Augstein)

On Wednesday (October 4), three researchers were awarded a Nobel Prize for creating a microscope technique that allows scientists to observe the intricate details of the molecules essential to life. This innovation essentially offers a front-row view to study these minuscule entities in their biological activities.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences noted that this technique enables the capture of molecules at the atomic level, allowing snapshots to freeze them in mid-action. This can help uncover their interactions.

“This method has ushered biochemistry into a new era,” announced the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences as it awarded the chemistry prize to Jacques Dubochet from the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, Joachim Frank, a German-born U.S. citizen at Columbia University in New York, and Richard Henderson from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England.

The high-resolution images produced by this technique have the potential to lead to the development of new medicines, vaccines, and industrial chemicals. However, experts caution that these benefits are mostly anticipated in the future as the method continues to be refined and utilized in research.

Allison A. Campbell, president of the American Chemical Society, explained that this technique, known as cryo-electron microscopy, is just beginning to be adopted by the research community. Recently, it was used to determine the structure of the Zika virus. Campbell likened it to "Google Earth for molecules" because it allows scientists to zoom in with fine detail, achieving the precise resolution necessary for in-depth study.

Previous methods have been employed to determine the structures of some biological molecules, but they have inherent limitations. The three recipients of the $1.1 million (9 million kronor) prize innovatively adapted electron microscopy, which utilizes a beam of electrons instead of regular light to examine samples.

Between 1975 and 1986, Joachim Frank developed mathematical models that transformed blurry two-dimensional images into clear, three-dimensional ones. In 1990, Richard Henderson demonstrated the technology's potential by creating a three-dimensional image of a protein at atomic resolution, according to the Nobel committee.

In the early 1980s, Jacques Dubochet discovered a method to cool water in biological samples so rapidly that it solidified without forming ice crystals, which can interfere with the electron beam. This breakthrough, along with subsequent advancements, significantly enhanced the technique, according to the Nobel committee. Heiner Linke, a member of the Nobel chemistry committee, noted that this is the first time scientists can observe biological molecules in their natural environment and understand their interactions down to individual atoms. Richard Henderson credited Dubochet with initiating the field by inventing the method of preparing specimens currently in use.

Henderson, speaking in Cambridge, England, expressed that the award represents the collective efforts of the entire field. Joachim Frank, upon hearing of his win, was overwhelmed and speechless, believing his chances were slim due to the numerous other innovations occurring daily. He mentioned he hasn't yet decided what to do with the prize money but joked with his wife about no longer needing to worry about a dog sitter.


NOTE: This week, the chemistry prize was the third Nobel announced, following the medicine prize awarded to Americans Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young for their work on circadian rhythms, and the physics prize given to Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish, and Kip Thorne for detecting gravitational waves. The literature prize will be announced on Thursday, and the peace prize on Friday.

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IndraStra Global: Three Researchers Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Creating 'Google Earth for Molecules'
Three Researchers Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Creating 'Google Earth for Molecules'
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