Proposed Concept: Fog-based Data Sharing Architecture

Asma Alotaibi, Ahmed Barnawi, and Mohammed Buhari | Department of Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University.

Proposed Concept: Fog-based Data Sharing Architecture

Cloud computing is the most popular computing paradigm that offers its resources over the Internet. Cloud computing provides many advantages to end users, such as lower cost, high reliability, and greater flexibility. However, it has some drawbacks, which include a high latency, necessitating Internet connectivity with high bandwidth and security [1].

During the last few years, a new trend of Internet deployments emerged called the Internet of Things (IoT) that envisions having every device connected to the Internet. Its applications include e-healthcare, a smart grid, etc. Those applications require low latency, mobility support, geo-distribution, and user location awareness. Cloud computing appears to be a satisfying solution to offer services to end users, but it cannot meet the IoTs’ requirements. As a result, a promising platform called fog computing is needed to provide the IoTs’ requirements; fog computing was proposed by Cisco in 2012 [2].

Fog computing is a concept that extends the paradigm of cloud computing to the network edge, allowing for a new generation of services [3]. Fog computing has an intermediate layer located between end devices and the cloud computing. This leads to a model with a three-layer hierarchy: Cloud-Fog-End Users [4]. The goal of fog computing is to offer resources in a close vicinity to the end users. As in Figure 1, each fog is located at a specific building and offers services to those inside the building [4]. Fog computing supports low latency, user mobility, real-time applications, and a wide geographic distribution. In addition, it enhances the quality of services (QoS) for end users. These features make the fog an ideal platform for the IoTs [5].

Figure 1: Fog computing supports low latency, user mobility, real-time applications, and a wide geographic distribution.

Figure 1: Fog computing supports low latency, user mobility, real-time applications, and a wide geographic distribution.

Support of location awareness is the key difference between the cloud environment and the fog environment. Cloud computing serves as a centralized global model, so it lacks location awareness. In contrast to cloud computing, fog devices are physically situated in the vicinity of end users [6].

Data sharing has great importance for many people, and it is an urgent need for organizations that aim to improve their productivity [7]. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop data sharing applications, especially for mass communications, where the data owner is responsible for delivering shared resources to a large group of users. This one (data owner) to many (users) method needs special care, taking into consideration the challenges related to such applications. The main problems for such applications are issues related to security and privacy [8].

Like cloud computing, fog computing faces several security threats for data storage; to meet them, there are security features that were provided in the cloud environment. These security features are the enforcing of fine-grained access control, data confidentiality, user revocation and collusion resistance between entities [9].

In their research paper, authors proposes an architecture for data sharing in a fog environment. They explored the benefits brought by fog computing to address one-to-many data sharing application.

There are four parties in the proposed system - Data Owner, Cloud Servers, many Fog Nodes and Data users.

Data Owner (DO) has the right to access and alter the data. He encrypts the data with the attributes of a specific group and generates the decryption keys for users. Then, he uploads the encrypted data to the cloud servers.

Cloud Server (CLD) is responsible for data storage and deploys the data to the fog nodes.

Fog Nodes (FNs) are responsible for data storage and for addressing users’ requests. They are considered as a semi-trusted party. They execute operations of user revocation phase.

Data Users (Us) are those who request data access when they have the rights to access data. This means, only when the user’s access policy satisfies the data attributes.

The fog environment scenario is shown in Figure 2, where a DO encrypts a data file and then outsources it to a CLD for storage. Then, the CLD deploys the data file to the specific fog node via the data distribution protocol, as will be shown later. Fog nodes are geographically distributed within a specific domain, and they have fixed locations. The user can be moving, and he is requesting the data from the fog node closest to him. The fog node receives the user’s request and delivers the file to the user. The DO can delegate most of the tasks to the home fog nodes, as shown in the following section. In fog-based data sharing model, fog nodes and the data owner both can be connected to the cloud via the Internet. The fog nodes are connected to each other via a wired network over the Internet. The users can be connected with the fog node using a wireless connection technique such as Wi-Fi, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: The fog environment scenario

This model consists of groups of users, and each group has a set of attributes and a basic location. Each group has many users who share the same attributes. One of the group attributes refers to its location, and group members connect with a fog that has the same location. The data owner assigns many files to each group on the basis of the attributes and needs of its members.Each fog node serves one group and is independent of its operation, so it is not affected when a user is revoked from another group. Therefore, the proposed revocation mechanism requires the re-encryption of the affected files and the updating of the secret keys, only for one group.

Data Distribution Protocol

Two types of fog in the data distribution architecture are defined:

Home Fog (HF): the fog has the same location as the user’s original location, where users are most likely to be found. It stores the user’s data and manages the processes.

Foreign Fog (FF): the fog is located away from the user’s original location, where the user is currently residing, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: The Foreign Fog and Home Fog

Figure 3: Data Distribution Architecture - The Foreign Fog and Home Fog

The proposed system is comprised of two kinds of data centers:

Cloud data centers (which includes the data centers for each group).

Local fog data centers

Each fog node is considered the “Home Fog” for the group that has the member’s same location, while it is considered the “Foreign Fog” for the other groups.

A local data center is a fog storage that holds copies of secret files. It is preloaded with the data required by fog users. The fog nodes maintain communication with the cloud. The data sharing between the cloud data center and each fog node data center is performed through immediate synchronization based on the unicast method.

When the user requests a file from the fog node, if the fog is the user’s HF, the fog node directly sends the file to the user. If the user is away from his/her HF, the case is processed, as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Data distribution protocol

Figure 4. Data distribution protocol

1) Using authentication, a user logs to the fog node closest to him. He requests to join to it and identifies the period of the joined fog node through the registration process.

2) The FF recognizes the user’s home by the system user list (the cloud updates this list whenever a user is added or removed and sends it to all fog nodes via broadcasting after each update. This list includes the user’s ID and its own HF. (Note: the HF of each user is fixed).

3) The FF sends the joining message with the specified period to the user’s HF.

4) The HF sends an acceptance reply to acknowledge the joining.

5) The FF accepts the user as a visitor, updates its visitor list, and then synchronizes the list with the cloud.

6) The HF updates the location of its own users by changing the user’s location to the FF’s location and synchronizing it with the cloud. This table does not include the visitor’s users; it is only for its group members.

7) The HF sends the user’s secret data to the FF.

8) The FF stores the data in its data center.

If the time expires and the user is still at the FF, he must join the FF again. When the user returns to his HF, he will send a de-joined request to the HF and inform it that he is at his HF. The FF updates the current location table and synchronizes the table with the cloud.

The proposed framework rests on a combination of previous approaches that provide secure data sharing in cloud computing, such as Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE)^ and Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE)^^ techniques. According to the researchers - Unlike the previous system [9], the proposed revocation mechanism does not necessitate the re-encryption of all system files and updating of all secret keys. The proposed system provides real-time data sharing to group members. 

"Our work will focus on providing an ideal environment for secure data sharing in a fog environment to overcome the disadvantages of a cloud-based data sharing system, which includes a high latency, requiring Internet connectivity with high bandwidth and lacking location awareness."
Asma Alotaibi, Ahmed Barnawi, and Mohammed Buhari

Such architecture is sought to outperform the cloud-based architecture and ensure further enhancements to system performance, especially from the perspective of security. The proposed framework provides high scalability, and sharing of data in real time with low latency.

The findings of their study and research can be accessed at the following link which includes simulation results as well as other experimental results. 


Key Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE) - In KP-ABE, data have a set of attributes linked to data by encryption with the public key. Each user has an access structure that is an access tree associated with data attributes. The user’s secret key is a reflection of the user’s access tree; therefore, the user can decrypt a ciphertext if the data attributes to match his or her access tree.

^^ Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE) -PRE is a cryptographic primitive that allows a semi-trusted proxy to transform the cipher text of the encrypted data under the data owner’s public key into a different ciphertext under the group member’s public key. The semi-trusted proxy server needs a re-encryption key sent by the data owner for a successful conversion process, and it is unable to discover the underlying plaintext of the encrypted data. Only an authorized user can decrypt the ciphertext.


Details about the Proposed Framework:

This article is an excerpt taken from Journal of Information Security Vol.08 No.03(2017), Article ID:77650,20 pages DOI: 10.4236/jis.2017.83014 Attribute-Based Secure Data Sharing with Efficient Revocation in Fog Computing by Asma Alotaibi, Ahmed Barnawi, Mohammed Buhari, Department of Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


[1]. Firdhous, M., Ghazali, O. and Hassan, S. (2014) Fog Computing: Will It Be the Future of Cloud Computing. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics & Applications, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, 8-15.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[2]. Bonomi, F., Milito, R., Zhu, J. and Addepalli, S. (2012) Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the First Edition of the MCC Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing, Helsinki, Finland, 17 August 2012, 13-16.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[3]. Stojmenovic, J. (2014) Fog Computing: A Cloud to the Ground Support for Smart Things and Machine-to-Machine Networks. Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), Southbank, VIC, 26-28 November 2014, 117-122.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[4]. Luan, T., Gao, L., Li, Z., Xiang, Y., We, G. and Sun, L. (2016) A View of Fog Computing from Networking Perspective. ArXivPrepr. ArXiv160201509.   [Citation Time(s):2]

[5]. Dastjerdi, A., Gupta, H., Calheiros, R., Ghosh, S. and Buyya, R. (2016) Fog Computing: Principals, Architectures, and Applications. ArXivPrepr. ArXiv160102752.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[6]. Yi, S., Hao, Z., Qin, Z. and Li, Q. (2015) Fog Computing: Platform and Applications. 2015 3rd IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Web Systems and Technologies (HotWeb), Washington DC, 12-13 November 2015, 73-78.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[7]. Scale, M. (2009) Cloud Computing and Collaboration. Library Hi Tech News, 26, 10-13.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[8]. Thilakanathan, D., Chen, S., Nepal, S. and Calvo, R. (2014) Secure Data Sharing in the Cloud. In: Nepal, S. and Pathan, M., Eds., Security, Privacy and Trust in Cloud Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 45-72.   [Citation Time(s):1]

[9]. Yu, S., Wang, C., Ren, K. and Lou, W. (2010) Achieving Secure, Scalable, and Fine-Grained Data Access Control in Cloud Computing. 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, San Diego, CA, 14-19 March 2010, 1-9.   [Citation Time(s):9]

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,9,Abkhazia,2,Abortion Laws,1,Academics,10,Accidents,21,Activism,1,Adani Group,5,ADB,13,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,13,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,88,Africa,112,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,20,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,7,Air Force,29,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,5,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,4,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,3,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,3,Artificial Intelligence,81,Artillery,2,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,12,Asia,70,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,57,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,129,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,3,Aviation,63,AWACS,2,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,2,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,28,Banking,53,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,3,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,13,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,19,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,3,Birth,1,BISA,1,Bitcoin,9,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,2,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,3,Bond Market,2,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,7,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,104,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,20,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,4,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1203,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,54,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,10,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Cement,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,82,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,48,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,579,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,67,Climate Change,23,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,44,Coal,6,Coast Guard,3,Cocoa,1,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,5,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,109,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,5,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,5,COP26,4,COP28,1,Copper,2,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,4,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,16,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,7,Culture,5,Currency,8,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,7,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,115,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,13,Decision Support System,5,Defense,12,Defense Deals,8,Deforestation,2,Deloitte,1,Democracy,22,Democrats,2,Demographic Studies,1,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,1,Digital Economy,10,Digital Marketing,6,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,14,Diplomatic Row,3,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,2,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,3,Doklam,2,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,48,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,14,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,3,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,8,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,43,Economy,109,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,4,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,53,Education,65,EFTA,1,Egypt,27,Election Disinformation,1,Elections,44,Electric Vehicle,15,Electricity,7,Electronics,8,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,19,Energy,316,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,24,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,47,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,14,European Union,233,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,6,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1373,Federal Reserve,2,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,59,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Five Eyes,1,Floods,1,Food Security,27,Forces,1,Forecasting,3,Foreign Policy,13,Forex,4,France,33,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Free Trade Agreement,1,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,Frigate,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,13,GCC,11,GDP,14,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,3,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,7,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,105,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,9,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,9,Geothermal,2,Germany,69,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,96,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,11,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,20,Gorkhaland,1,Government,128,Government Analytics,1,GPS,1,Greater Asia,174,Greece,14,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,3,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gulf of Tonkin,1,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hamas,10,Hasan,1,Health,8,Healthcare,72,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,12,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,16,Houthi,12,Howitzer,1,Human Development,32,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,7,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,4,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,2,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,76,Immigration,19,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,661,India's,1,Indian Air Force,19,Indian Army,7,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,27,Indian Ocean,24,Indices,1,Indigenous rights,1,Indo-Pacific,6,Indonesia,19,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,4,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,10,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,4,Investment,33,Investor Relations,1,IPEF,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,205,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,4,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,145,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,136,Italy,10,Ivory Coast,1,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,91,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,JMSDF,1,Joe Biden,8,Joint Strike Fighter,5,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kaspersky,1,Kazakhstan,26,Kenya,5,Khalistan,2,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Korean Conflict,1,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Large language models,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,82,Law,6,Leadership,3,Lebanon,10,Legal,11,LGBTQ,2,Li Keqiang,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Liechtenstein,1,Lifestyle,1,Light Battle Tank,1,Linkedin,1,Lithuania,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,9,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,13,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,15,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,50,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,2,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,MediaWiki,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,18,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,3,Mexico,14,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,112,Military Exercise,10,Military Service,2,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,6,Missile Systems,56,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,11,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,11,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Mutual Funds,1,Myanmar,30,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Namibia,1,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,2,NASA,13,National Identification Card,1,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,34,Natural Disasters,15,Natural Gas,33,Natural Language Processing,1,Nauru,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,24,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,50,Navigation,2,Navy,23,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Nearshoring,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Netflix,1,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,7,News,1267,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nikki Haley,1,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,53,North Korea,58,Norway,5,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,41,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Energy,4,Nuclear Fussion,1,Nuclear Propulsion,2,Nuclear Security,47,Nuclear Submarine,1,NYSE,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,5,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,382,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,73,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,OpenAI,2,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,691,Opinon Poll,1,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,181,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,24,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,2,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,6,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,14,Philippines,19,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,4,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,53,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,6,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,18,Private Equity,2,Private Military Contractors,2,Privatization,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,12,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publications,1,Publishing,7,Purchasing Managers' Index,1,Putin,7,Q&A,1,Qatar,114,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,9,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RBI,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,6,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,5,Referendum,5,Reforms,18,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,2,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,18,Report,4,Reports,49,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,2,Research,5,Research and Development,24,Restructuring,1,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Rice,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,317,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,5,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,130,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,392,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,3,Securities,2,Security,6,Semiconductor,18,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,5,Serbia,4,Services Sector,1,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,11,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,5,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,17,Situational Awareness,20,Small Modular Nuclear Reactors,1,Smart Cities,7,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,16,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,47,South Asia,472,South China Sea,36,South East Asia,76,South Korea,62,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,9,Space,46,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,24,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,Statistics,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,23,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,4,Submarine,16,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,48,Surveillance,13,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,6,Syria,112,Taiwan,32,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,3,Taxation,25,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,77,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,11,The Middle East,653,Think Tank,317,Tibet,3,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,3,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,14,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,19,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,47,Travel and Tourism,15,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,139,UAV,23,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,113,Ukraine War,25,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,82,United Nations,28,United States,760,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,12,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,18,US Postal Service,1,US Senate,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,21,USV,1,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,19,Venture Capital,4,Vibrant Gujarat,1,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,25,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WeChat,1,WEF,3,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,3,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,14,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,38,World Economy,32,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,28,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
IndraStra Global: Proposed Concept: Fog-based Data Sharing Architecture
Proposed Concept: Fog-based Data Sharing Architecture
Asma Alotaibi, Ahmed Barnawi, and Mohammed Buhari | Department of Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University.
IndraStra Global
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content