FEATURED | TRAI's Consultation Towards a Net Neutrality Framework in India

By Amba Kak, Mayank Mishra and Smriti Parsheera Image Attribute:  Garry Knight/Flickr.com/CC-BY-2.0 The Context The Teleco...

By Amba Kak, Mayank Mishra and Smriti Parsheera

FEATURED | TRAI's Consultation Towards a Net Neutrality Framework in India


The Context

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has issued a Consultation Paper (CP) on Net Neutrality seeking inputs for the formulation of final views on the subject. This comes almost a year after TRAI's regulation prohibiting discriminatory tariffs for data services based on content, framed using its power to determine the rates at which telecommunication services are to be provided. The present exercise covers a broader canvas of trying to identify the acceptable limits of interference in the provision of Internet access services. This includes practices like blocking, degradation or prioritization of specific traffic, which often form the focus of the net neutrality debate. In TRAI's words, it is an attempt to "rethink the first principles of traffic management by telecom service providers (TSPs)".

While issuing the discriminatory tariff regulation, TRAI had highlighted the importance of "keeping the Internet open and non-discriminatory". This idea also flows through the CP and the pre-consultation paper that preceded it in May 2016. In fact, TRAI acknowledges in the CP that the term "net neutrality" is being used in its commonly understood sense of equal or nondiscriminatory treatment of content while providing access to the Internet. The word "equal", however, does not appear in the ultimate question posed by TRAI on what should be the "principles for ensuring nondiscriminatory access to content". The CP does not clearly spell out the reason for this. It could be due to the difficulties of monitoring equality in the best efforts delivery system; or perhaps because the term non-discriminatory already captures the concept of equality.

Key issues raised by TRAI

The CP is reasonably comprehensive in its coverage of all major aspects that countries have considered while formulating their positions on net neutrality. Several of these, like reasonable traffic management, the scope of prohibited activities and a need for transparency were also discussed by TRAI at the pre-consultation stage. The difference, however, is that this CP takes a deeper dive into those issues, identifying the different approaches that could be considered and, in some cases, also weighing their pros and cons. On some issues, TRAI explores new areas, not covered in its earlier papers on the subject. The following are some key points discussed in the CP.

First, TRAI notes that each country's approach to net neutrality is defined by its local context. Accordingly, it refers to some India-specific factors that may influence its approach. These include the predominantly wireless character of access services -- 97 percent of Internet subscribers are on wireless networks. The CP later explains that traffic management on wireless networks may pose certain unique challenges due to spectrum constraints and variable usage patterns. It also refers to India's circle-wise licensing regime which often results in the usage of third party networks outside one's home service area. TRAI queries, who will be responsible for any neutrality violations in such situations?

Second, the CP raises pertinent questions about the appropriate footprint of regulation, in terms of the services that are covered and the persons rendering them. In particular, it refers to the potential exclusion of "specialized services", which could be defined in several different ways. The manner in which India eventually chooses to answer this question will have far-reaching effects on the adoption of future technologies in the country, particularly in the context of the Internet of Things revolution.

Third, beyond trying to identify the reasonable limits of traffic management, this CP gets into more practical aspects of detection and monitoring of violations. It also suggests a collaborative approach for implementing the operational aspects of net neutrality, which, if adopted, would be a novel approach for the Indian telecom sector.

Fourth, TRAI discusses the role of disclosures and transparency in guarding against discriminatory traffic management practices, an issue that was also raised in earlier consultation papers. However, in this case, it goes on to suggest two approaches on how this can be achieved -- a "direct approach" that would require a TSP to make specific disclosures only its own users; and an "indirect" one would also involve transparency towards third parties like content providers, consumers groups, research organisations and users of other TSPs.

Scope of acceptable traffic management

The chapter on "Traffic Management" in the CP sets out the crux of the net neutrality policy debate. First, it explains why traffic management is an integral function of access providers -- to address congestion, security and the integrity of the network. Next, it notes that while such motivations for traffic management practices (TMPs) could be considered "reasonable", others might be "non-reasonable" due to their potentially discriminatory and anti-competitive effects. As such, it explains why regulating traffic management is being considered as a policy option and then mulls over the varied regulatory approaches that could be adopted.

Congestion management, which is explained in terms of the variability of demand or "peak-load", particularly on wireless networks, is explained to be one of the reasons for which access providers might legitimately engage in TMPs. TRAI recognizes that the real solution to such issues lies in enhancing the overall network capacity but goes on to note that "even in a situation of enhanced capacity, some degree of scarcity might persist", hence creating a role for traffic management. The key takeaway from this discussion is that "differences in network architecture and technology" will play a role in assessing the reasonableness of any TMPs.

Next, the CP highlights that the same commercial considerations that prompt the use of traffic management tools to improve network performance could also become the cause of exclusionary or discriminatory practices. It notes that there have been global examples of TSP interference in networks for patently anti-competitive purposes, namely "service blocking, prioritizing affiliated content provider services or throttling competing ones". While this explains the calls for regulation, traffic interference driven by commercial arrangements is not the whole scope of TRAI's inquiry. Instead, the CP provides two conceptual frames that might be used for such regulation -- the "broad approach" and the "narrow approach".

The "broad approach" appears to be a principles-based approach to identifying which practices would be considered reasonable. Drawing from the European Union's regulations, it refers to guiding principles like proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, and absence of commercial considerations that can be used to define the bounds of reasonableness. Practices like application-specific discrimination, throttling encrypted content, deep packet inspections, etc. can then be tested against these standards.

In contrast, the "narrow approach" will confine itself to formulating a "negative list" of practices that will not be permitted, without going into the contours of reasonableness. TRAI leaves the content of the negative list open for discussion but gives the specific example of practices motivated by commercial/strategic partnerships with content companies as a potentially proscribed activity.

The distinction between the two approaches does not appear to be one of mere semantics. The paper acknowledges that a negative list is, by nature, likely to be restricted to situations that we are aware of today -- "This may motivate providers to develop other types of business practices that are not explicitly covered in the narrow restrictions although they may have similar harmful effects". It also notes that there could be difficulties in establishing a commercial motive. One way to address this could be to treat the lack of any objective/ technical reasoning for a traffic shaping practice as being indicative of "commercial motive", even where this may not be explicit.

By weighing these different approaches, TRAI seems to acknowledge that regulating TMPs is a tricky exercise, with the high likelihood of false positives and negatives. Narrowly defined ex-ante rules may, therefore, be an uneasy fit with the complex and technical nature of traffic management. The controversy over AT&T restricting Apple's FaceTime application, its high-quality video-calling service, on its cellular network, presents an interesting example. In 2012, when Apple first launched FaceTime for use on mobile networks, AT&T declared that the service would be available only on select pricing plans. On the face of it, this constitutes an application-specific discrimination that violates net neutrality principles, as pointed out by many neutrality advocates. The case, however, also throws up several complex issues, which were discussed in the case study prepared by a Working Group of FCC's Open Internet Advisory Committee.

First, pre-loaded applications, like Facetime, are likely to enjoy more large-scale adoption, thus more likelihood of creating pressure on the network -- only about 10 percent iPhone users voluntarily downloaded Skype, while all had Facetime preloaded on their phones. Second, high-bandwidth video calling applications put a particular strain on mobile data networks, in both the upstream and downstream direction. FaceTime, in particular, was found to consume "on average 2-4 times more bandwidth than a similar Skype video call" at that point of time. Third, limited trial deployment of a new application, for instance, by limiting it to particular pricing plans, could be useful for gathering measurement data to assist in developing better TMPs. Fourth, application management can take place on the device, as was happening in this case, or on the network -- "whether it matters where an application-management decision is enforced, and which organization decides on it". TRAI has also touched upon some of these aspects in the CP by raising questions on "application-specific discrimination", "duty-bearers" in a net neutrality regime and impact of traffic management at the level of the device or operating system being used by a person.

Conclusion

The public discourse that preceded the discriminatory tariff regulation took place in the shadow of Facebook's Free Basics offering. It led to heated debates and sharply polarized views, many of which were focused on the specifics of Free Basics. In contrast, this current consultation is taking place in a relatively less charged environment, with no poster child violation. This presents an opportunity for the regulator and stakeholders to proactively engage with one another in developing a suitable framework for India that can be tested against a range of potential practices. The real test will be to ensure that whatever principles India chooses to adopt at this stage convey a strong regulatory message on non-discrimination, but also have the flexibility to adapt to the dynamic environment of this industry.

The authors are researchers at the National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi, India

This article was originally published at Dr. Ajay Shah's blog on January 23, 2017. 
All rights reserved by the author and original publisher.

AIDN0030120170075 / INDRASTRA / ISSN 2381-3652 / FEATURED | TRAI's Consultation Towards a Net Neutrality Framework in India
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,6,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,10,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,1,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,81,Africa,108,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,3,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,3,Al Shabab,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,11,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,63,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,43,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,123,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,57,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,29,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,19,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,10,Book Review,17,Border Conflicts,5,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,961,C-UAS,1,California,4,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,5,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,73,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,45,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,437,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,12,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,39,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,78,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,3,Coronavirus,105,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,79,COVID,4,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,7,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,11,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,103,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,9,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,4,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,1,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,38,Economy,65,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,60,Egypt,23,Elections,28,Electric Vehicle,10,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,305,Energy Policy,27,Energy Politics,23,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,45,ePayments,7,Epidemic,5,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,2,Eurasia,3,Euro,5,Europe,5,European Union,214,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,3,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1100,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,16,Financial Markets,47,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,11,Fishery,3,Food Security,22,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,11,Forex,1,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,8,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,7,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,56,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,1,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,124,Greece,12,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,66,Immigration,16,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,525,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,22,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,2,Indonesia,16,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,4,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,31,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,184,Iraq,52,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,117,IT ITeS,129,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,56,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,6,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,12,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,1,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,7,Mali,5,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,37,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,8,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,8,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,51,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,24,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,12,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,29,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,28,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,17,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,42,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,Negotiations,1,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,4,New Zealand,5,News,1004,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,21,North America,37,North Korea,48,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,36,Nuclear Agreement,29,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,43,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,326,Oil Gas,5,Oil Price,49,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,111,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,609,Pacific,5,Pakistan,155,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,10,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,7,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,4,Protests,7,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,94,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,2,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,1,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,1,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,12,Reports,35,Repository,1,Republicans,2,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,19,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,256,Russian Navy,4,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,121,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,329,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,2,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,11,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,396,South China Sea,30,South East Asia,58,South Korea,41,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,38,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,20,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,15,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,37,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,14,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,16,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,15,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,22,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,21,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,73,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,6,The Middle East,600,Think Tank,283,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,4,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,1,UAE,130,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,88,Ukraine War,3,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,67,United Nations,27,United States,626,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,18,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,11,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,17,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,25,World Economy,23,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Xi Jinping,8,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: FEATURED | TRAI's Consultation Towards a Net Neutrality Framework in India
FEATURED | TRAI's Consultation Towards a Net Neutrality Framework in India
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-48R6PG_sx60/WIrTnbcmLwI/AAAAAAAAN3s/DHxSnFR2azw7hvjg14LxpwP3l1Xtwc9BACLcB/s640/GK-FLICKR-CC-2-0.jpg
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-48R6PG_sx60/WIrTnbcmLwI/AAAAAAAAN3s/DHxSnFR2azw7hvjg14LxpwP3l1Xtwc9BACLcB/s72-c/GK-FLICKR-CC-2-0.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2017/01/FEATURED-TRAI-s-Consultation-towards-Net-Neutrality-Framework-in-India-003-01-2017-0075.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2017/01/FEATURED-TRAI-s-Consultation-towards-Net-Neutrality-Framework-in-India-003-01-2017-0075.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content