FEATURED | The Curious Cases of Floating Armories

India had raised the issue of floating armories in the Indian Ocean region at the recent annual Sri Lanka-India Defense Dialogue in New Delhi. As per the minutes of the meeting, the Indian Defense Secretary highlighted India’s concern over the existence of a large number of Private Maritime Security Companies (PMSCs) to counter piracy.

Foreword by IndraStra Global Editorial Team

On November 9, 2015, the Sri Lankan Law and Order Minister, Tilak Marapana, resigned, after some influential fellow ministers vehemently opposed his decision not to pursue a high profile case against Avant Garde Maritime Services Ltd., (AGMSL), a controversial company which maintains a floating armory and supplies weapons and Sea Marshals to vessels plying in pirate infested areas of the Indian Ocean.

India had raised the issue of floating armories in the Indian Ocean region at the recent annual Sri Lanka-India Defense Dialogue in New Delhi. As per the minutes of the meeting, the Indian Defense Secretary highlighted India’s concern over the existence of a large number of Private Maritime Security Companies (PMSCs) to counter piracy. He said that in the absence of a regulatory mechanism, unlawful use of these armories cannot be ruled out. The Lankan Defense Secretary said that his government is reviewing the existing regulations and assured that India’s concerns will be adequately addressed.

India has had a couple of bad experiences with foreign Sea Marshals. The killing of two Kerala fishermen by Italian Marines guarding a commercial vessel had triggered a diplomatic row between India and Italy.

In 2012, the UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea highlighted concerns over the safety and security of floating armories, citing the lack of national and international regulations. The Group stated:

This new and highly profitable business for PMSCs is uncontrolled and almost entirely unregulated, posing additional legal and security challenges for all parties involved.

It is over three years and yet there exists no international regulation and but only limited national regulation. As the floating armories are often moored in international waters, they operate in a ‘legal grey area’ with, in some cases, the only regulation coming from the states that register the vessels (the flag states). There are at least 3 states (Djibouti, Mongolia, and St Kitts and Grenadine) that give explicit approval for vessels to operate as floating armories. Other states do have some regulation regarding the carrying of weapons on board ships but it mainly relates to PMSCs rather than floating armories specifically.

Hereby, we are enclosing an abridged report on the so called unregulated "Floating Armories", provided by one of the leading security consulting and research organizations from UK. For more detail, check the footnote after the reading.

Floating Armouries - Implications and Risk
By Omega Research Foundation

Introduction:

Floating armories are vessels used to store weapons, ammunition, and related equipment such as body armor and night vision goggles. They also provide other logistics support including accommodation, food and medical supplies storage for Private Maritime Security Companies (PMSCs) engaged in vessel protection. They are typically commercially owned vessels, often anchored in international waters. The term “logistic support vessel” is sometimes used by the industry when referring to floating armories. However as the primary function of these vessels is to facilitate the storage and provision of weapons we believe the term floating armories is more appropriate.


Floating armories are not purpose built vessels but ships that have been converted and retrofitted. The armories include ships that were previously offshore tugs, anchor handlers, research vessels, patrol boats and a roll on-roll off ferry. For example, the MV Sea Patrol currently used as a floating armory was originally a navy de-mining ship and there is an advertisement for the sale of a ship that was recently used for hydro-graphic and survey activities but which it would be “ideal” as an armory. There is no requirement for floating armories to have standardized secure storage such as strong rooms in the hull of the ship.

The Operators:

One company may own and/or run several floating armories as well as other storage facilities. The company concerned, Avant Garde Maritime Services, runs a range of storage facilities and rents weapons, ammunition and body armor to private security contractors. It currently operates 3 floating armories, strategically placed in 3 key locations around the High Risk Area (HRA) .These provide storage facility of firearms owned by both PMSCs and the government of Sri Lanka as well as accommodation for sea Marshals.

Avant Garde’s floating armories are currently located in the Gulf of Oman off the coast of Fujairah, in the Red Sea and in Galle off of the coast of Sri Lanka.Weapons and other equipment may be embarked or disembarked at any of the armories. The company also has facilities for weapons storage on the routes shown on the map (below) and also offers a range of additional services including sea marshals and training on the use of weapons. Weapons and ammunition may be rented from official stocks of the Government of Sri Lanka or operators may use the facilities to store their own weapons.

Website Screenshot: ‘Avant Garde Maritime Services, http://www.avantmaritime.com  (accessed: 11/29/2015)


Information on which companies operate floating armories is difficult to access and data remains incomplete. Companies operating floating armories include:
  • Avant Garde Maritime Services (PVT) Ltd who operate 3 armories on the authorization of the Sri Lankan Government; MV Mahanuwara off the coast of Sri Lanka, MV Sinbad in the Gulf of Oman (along with Sinbad Navigation) and the MV Avant Garde in the Red Sea .  
  • Sinbad Navigation also appears to run its own floating armory, MV Antarctica Dream, in the Red Sea. 
  • The Government of Djibouti has authorized Sovereign Global UK to operate 2 floating armories; the MV Aladin in the Gulf of Oman and the MV Sultan in the Red Sea.
  • MNG Maritime operates 2 floating armories: MV MNG Resolution and the MV Sea Patrol.
  • Drum Cussac have a UK license to operate floating armories, they reportedly operate an armory on the MV Sea Lion.
  • In addition the American company AdvanFort operates a floating armory aboard MV Seaman Guard Ohio – which is currently impounded by the Indian authorities.
The main concentration of the armories is in the Red Sea, Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean. The current security situation in the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean makes this the current focal point for armories but this may change, especially in relation to the increase in the number of attacks on shipping off the west coast of Africa and in South East Asia. Floating armories are located at either end of the piracy affected zone, allowing operators to both pick up and drop off weapons outside the HRA and also out of territorial jurisdiction.

Recommendations made by the Omega Research Foundation in their report on "Floating Armouries":

Recommendation #1: 

A central registry system must be established, listing the names and registration numbers (IMO number) of the floating armories as well as other pertinent information such as flag state and operator.

Recommendation #2: 

In the case of a PMSC or armory operator going into administrative process, there should be a mechanism in place to ensure that any weapons and ammunition are securely stored and subsequently destroyed.

Recommendation #3: 

Standards governing floating armories should be introduced by Flag States. We recommend that floating armories are flagged to an appropriate state.

Recommendation #4:  

Governments who have given permission for PMSCs to use floating armories immediately revoke permission for the PMSCs to store weapons on armories flagged to either Paris MOU or Tokyo MOU black listed countries.

Recommendation #5:  

An interim measure should be deployed at all operators of floating armories regarding the in receipt of ISO 28000 and ISO/PAS 28007 certification.

Recommendation #6:  

Strict regulations relating to record keeping must be developed and enforced and any transgression of the regulations is investigated and perpetrators prosecuted.

Recommendation #7: 

The IMO or other international body must establish a regulatory authority to regulate, monitor and inspect floating armories and the activities of their operators.

Recommendation #8: 

Insurance companies should seek mandatory declarations from vessel owners and request proof from PMSCs that they are not using unlicensed floating armories to store their weapons and they hold the correct licenses for any weapons they possess.

Recommendation #9: 

Any international register of floating armories must contain the information detailing the insurer of the vessel.

Recommendation #10: 

The country that is licensing the arms transfer should develop a certification process to ensure that PMSCs have the necessary documentation to use and carry arms and ammunition.

Recommendation #11: 

Any international register of floating armories must contain the information on the number of weapons and quantity of ammunition permitted to be stored on board.

Conclusion:

There is no doubt that the deployment of armed guards on board merchant vessels has led to a significant reduction in the number of ships that have been hijacked. In addition the growth in floating armories has enabled countries to reduce the use of land-based armories by PMSCs, and has enabled PMSCs personnel to access the required logistical support and equipment that they need to function effectively.

However, there is a worrying lack of regulation regarding the operation and use of floating armories. There needs to be coordinated international action, something that has to date been lacking, resulting in piecemeal and disjointed government responses.

The current situation where some armories are registered in their home country, registered voluntarily with the IMO and/or SAMI and adhere to the (voluntary) ISO standards whilst others do not, is insufficient to deal with the issues raised by the proliferation of floating armories. There is nothing to prevent any vessel being turned into an armory in international waters, and if the flag state is a country with limited (or no) controls over the storing and transfer of military equipment then such vessels may operate with no oversight what-so-ever. Such vessels allow companies whose operators may not be licensed to use or transfer weapons and ammunition, to act with impunity. The growth of floating armories and lack of oversight for such vessels is a worrying development.

A further issue is the lack of transparency over the number of weapons and quantity of ammunition that may be stored or moved between them. There is an urgent need for international agreement between states on a minimum set of standards for such armories. Flag states, where such vessels are registered, should incorporate a ‘benchmark’ set of requirements over storage, security and record keeping for weapons on board vessels that all operators should be required to meet. Given the range of companies operating in the PMSC sector, the complex jurisdictional issues relating to company registration and the large quantities of small arms and light weapons licensed for use by such companies, targeting the armories themselves, and the states under whose flag they sail seems to be the most expedient way of ensuring that some type of oversight is exercised in the short term.

The rise of such a significant number of PMSCs and the persistent threat to commercial shipping means that floating armories are likely to continue to be a feature of the modern response to maritime security threats. Whilst such vessels may have originally been deployed to the Indian Ocean, their mobility means that they are easily re-deployable around the globe. An international response is required from the International Maritime Organisation, or another body, with the task of monitoring all floating armories and the companies that operate and use them.

About Omega Research Foundation:

The Omega Research Foundation is an independent UK-based research organization. They are dedicated to providing rigorous, objective, evidence-based research on the manufacture, trade in, and use of, military, security and police (MSP) technologies.

The company information detailed in this report is for illustrative purposes only and drawn from information already in the public domain. The authors as well as the original publishers do not intend to imply that any companies named in this report have committed any wrongdoing nor behaved in an improper manner. 
______________________________

Publication Details:

This article is an excerpt taken from a report published by the Remote Control project, December 2014 under a Creative Commons license. Download the Complete Report - LINK 
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,9,Abkhazia,2,Abortion Laws,1,Academics,10,Accidents,21,Activism,1,Adani Group,5,ADB,13,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,13,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,88,Africa,112,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,20,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,7,Air Force,29,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,5,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,4,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,3,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,3,Artificial Intelligence,81,Artillery,2,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,12,Asia,70,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,57,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,129,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,3,Aviation,63,AWACS,2,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,2,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,28,Banking,53,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,3,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,13,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,19,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,3,Birth,1,BISA,1,Bitcoin,9,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,2,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,3,Bond Market,2,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,7,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,104,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,20,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,4,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1203,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,54,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,10,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Cement,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,82,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,48,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,579,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,67,Climate Change,23,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,44,Coal,6,Coast Guard,3,Cocoa,1,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,5,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,109,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,5,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,5,COP26,4,COP28,1,Copper,2,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,4,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,16,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,7,Culture,5,Currency,8,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,7,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,115,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,13,Decision Support System,5,Defense,12,Defense Deals,8,Deforestation,2,Deloitte,1,Democracy,22,Democrats,2,Demographic Studies,1,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,1,Digital Economy,10,Digital Marketing,6,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,14,Diplomatic Row,3,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,2,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,3,Doklam,2,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,48,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,14,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,3,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,8,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,43,Economy,109,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,4,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,53,Education,65,EFTA,1,Egypt,27,Election Disinformation,1,Elections,44,Electric Vehicle,15,Electricity,7,Electronics,8,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,19,Energy,316,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,24,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,47,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,14,European Union,233,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,6,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1373,Federal Reserve,2,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,59,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Five Eyes,1,Floods,1,Food Security,27,Forces,1,Forecasting,3,Foreign Policy,13,Forex,4,France,33,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Free Trade Agreement,1,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,Frigate,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,13,GCC,11,GDP,14,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,3,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,7,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,105,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,9,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,9,Geothermal,2,Germany,69,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,96,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,11,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,20,Gorkhaland,1,Government,128,Government Analytics,1,GPS,1,Greater Asia,174,Greece,14,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,3,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gulf of Tonkin,1,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hamas,10,Hasan,1,Health,8,Healthcare,72,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,12,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,16,Houthi,12,Howitzer,1,Human Development,32,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,7,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,4,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,2,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,76,Immigration,19,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,661,India's,1,Indian Air Force,19,Indian Army,7,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,27,Indian Ocean,24,Indices,1,Indigenous rights,1,Indo-Pacific,6,Indonesia,19,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,4,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,10,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,4,Investment,33,Investor Relations,1,IPEF,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,205,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,4,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,145,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,136,Italy,10,Ivory Coast,1,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,91,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,JMSDF,1,Joe Biden,8,Joint Strike Fighter,5,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kaspersky,1,Kazakhstan,26,Kenya,5,Khalistan,2,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Korean Conflict,1,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Large language models,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,82,Law,6,Leadership,3,Lebanon,10,Legal,11,LGBTQ,2,Li Keqiang,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Liechtenstein,1,Lifestyle,1,Light Battle Tank,1,Linkedin,1,Lithuania,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,9,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,13,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,15,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,50,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,2,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,MediaWiki,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,18,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,3,Mexico,14,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,112,Military Exercise,10,Military Service,2,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,6,Missile Systems,56,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,11,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,11,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Mutual Funds,1,Myanmar,30,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Namibia,1,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,2,NASA,13,National Identification Card,1,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,34,Natural Disasters,15,Natural Gas,33,Natural Language Processing,1,Nauru,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,24,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,50,Navigation,2,Navy,23,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Nearshoring,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Netflix,1,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,7,News,1267,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nikki Haley,1,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,53,North Korea,58,Norway,5,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,41,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Energy,4,Nuclear Fussion,1,Nuclear Propulsion,2,Nuclear Security,47,Nuclear Submarine,1,NYSE,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,5,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,382,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,73,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,OpenAI,2,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,691,Opinon Poll,1,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,181,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,24,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,2,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,6,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,14,Philippines,19,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,4,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,53,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,6,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,18,Private Equity,2,Private Military Contractors,2,Privatization,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,12,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publications,1,Publishing,7,Purchasing Managers' Index,1,Putin,7,Q&A,1,Qatar,114,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,9,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RBI,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,6,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,5,Referendum,5,Reforms,18,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,2,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,18,Report,4,Reports,49,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,2,Research,5,Research and Development,24,Restructuring,1,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Rice,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,317,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,5,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,130,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,392,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,3,Securities,2,Security,6,Semiconductor,18,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,5,Serbia,4,Services Sector,1,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,11,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,5,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,17,Situational Awareness,20,Small Modular Nuclear Reactors,1,Smart Cities,7,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,16,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,47,South Asia,472,South China Sea,36,South East Asia,76,South Korea,62,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,9,Space,46,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,24,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,Statistics,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,23,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,4,Submarine,16,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,48,Surveillance,13,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,6,Syria,112,Taiwan,32,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,3,Taxation,25,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,77,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,11,The Middle East,653,Think Tank,317,Tibet,3,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,3,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,14,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,19,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,47,Travel and Tourism,15,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,139,UAV,23,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,113,Ukraine War,25,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,82,United Nations,28,United States,760,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,12,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,18,US Postal Service,1,US Senate,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,21,USV,1,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,19,Venture Capital,4,Vibrant Gujarat,1,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,25,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WeChat,1,WEF,3,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,3,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,14,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,38,World Economy,32,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,28,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: FEATURED | The Curious Cases of Floating Armories
FEATURED | The Curious Cases of Floating Armories
India had raised the issue of floating armories in the Indian Ocean region at the recent annual Sri Lanka-India Defense Dialogue in New Delhi. As per the minutes of the meeting, the Indian Defense Secretary highlighted India’s concern over the existence of a large number of Private Maritime Security Companies (PMSCs) to counter piracy.
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEhkP7YPV2v31Qbe7rljy5ZqjIVd84848HbQeEiSGcnwZfqFnt6u9tBT-4moL0P_xkPCq1bGQfwal8S6F28EUwKWLlr6UOGV2XEj6ILbwW1g88Aimb_vpmTgNT4VhTxv0Jh4HUOxfxacyDc/s640/security-guard-2_2697493k.jpg
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEhkP7YPV2v31Qbe7rljy5ZqjIVd84848HbQeEiSGcnwZfqFnt6u9tBT-4moL0P_xkPCq1bGQfwal8S6F28EUwKWLlr6UOGV2XEj6ILbwW1g88Aimb_vpmTgNT4VhTxv0Jh4HUOxfxacyDc/s72-c/security-guard-2_2697493k.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2015/11/REPORT-A-Need-to-Define-Rules-of-Engagement-for-Floating-Armories-0489.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2015/11/REPORT-A-Need-to-Define-Rules-of-Engagement-for-Floating-Armories-0489.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content