OPINION | The Folly of Vengeance: Thinking through the Paris attacks with Simone de Beauvoir

In the wake of the Paris attacks on November 13, international media highlighted how it was the deadliest attack since the Second World War, which was quickly rebutted when it was pointed out that up to 200 Algerians had been massacred in Paris in 1961 after protesting the colonial war in Algeria.

By  Nayeli Urquiza Haas

‘…we said ourselves in an outburst of anger ‘They will pay’. And our anger seemed to promise a joy so heavy that we could scarcely believe ourselves able to bear it. They have paid. They are going to pay. They pay each day. And the joy has not risen up in our hearts’.1

OPINION | The Folly of Vengeance: Thinking through the Paris attacks with Simone de Beauvoir

Image Attribute: Paris in Barricade,  Source: Getty Images/Wikipedia

In the wake of the Paris attacks on November 13, international media highlighted how it was the deadliest attack since the Second World War, which was quickly rebutted when it was pointed out that up to 200 Algerians had been massacred in Paris in 1961 after protesting the colonial war in Algeria. Even if we believed every life mattered, the unequal mourning shown after the bombing in Beirut at day before the multiple attacks in Paris show how lives which are lost to violence appear or dis-​appear in the public realm.

While there has been criticism in the media and elsewhere about the history and politics that frames how lives matter and how all should matter (for instance Judith Butler’s Precarious Life) and how the law plays a key role by creating distinctions between worthy and unworthy lives to mourned (victim/​criminal, combatant/​civilian, terrorist/​freedom fighter), the absence of Simone de Beauvoir’s voice in France’s contemporary challenges should not be a reason to forget her invitation to think critically about how we react when we are injured.

As a prolific feminist author whose influence is well recognized, Beauvoir would seem for many to be an unlikely interlocutor to think through the current military response to the attacks: bombing Raqqa to the ground and the militaristic policing in Paris this week. However, it might be worth recalling that Beauvoir was a critic of the torture methods used by the French government in the French-​Algerian war 1954 – 1962.2 Her approach to historical events and philosophy is grounded through phenomenology. Beauvoir states that her intention is ‘to merely translate […] a situation that is showing itself to be historical precisely in that it is in the process of changing’ without colonizing the experience of marginalized others.3

The leitmotif of ambiguity, which traverses most of her body of work, provides the gravitas shaping, problematizing and marking the limits of her thoughts and judgements on the political transformations she faced with others: WWII, the war in Algeria, women’s oppression, etc. More importantly, her critique of post-​war punishment and liberal moral philosophy is a helpful guide to resisting the impulse of revenge.


Recent engagements with Beauvoir’s work on ambiguity demonstrate the breadth of her method, encompassing themes that are not limited to gender and sexuality studies but also extend to questions of politics, moral philosophy, and ethics.4 For Beauvoir, the human condition is marked by the ‘tragedy of ambiguity,’ because it is an isolated subjective experience that nevertheless coexists ‘at the heart of the world with other men’.5 Ambiguity is the frame that helps her understand the tensions arising from our relationship with others and the desire for freedom. Ambiguity evinces an impossible struggle between ethics and politics, where Beauvoir’s political subject moves through the world to impose a meaning while the ethical ‘acknowledges the mark of the other’. 6

One of the most interesting implications of her emphasis on ambiguity is how it unsettles the values ascribed to the theory and practice of punishment. Crime and punishment as much as war and peace, delineate the borders of this intersubjective dilemma. They represent ways in which the intersubjective world is denied by imposing one meaning over another. In the essay ‘Eye for an Eye’ (1946), Beauvoir seeks to make sense of the trial and execution of Robert Brasillach — a French intellectual who collaborated with the Germans by publishing a fascist newspaper. More than just an occasion piece, this essay is a pillar in Beauvoir’s work as she alludes to ambiguity for the first time. 7

Embracing revenge and resisting revenge: Two different Parises

The State’s penal machinery set in motion after the Paris attacks bears all the characteristics of revenge, pure and simple. By November 18, France struck back with airstrikes in Raqqa, ISIL’s de facto base. A week before, the city had been also pounded by Russian bombs which destroyed the national hospital.

Revenge, whilst denounced as barbaric — as something that criminal courts and scholarship in post-​Enlightenment Europe abandoned through its sublimation into ‘retributive justice’ — it reserves a strong place in the philosophical imaginary of criminal legal doctrine and in international law. Even though retributive justice holds on to the belief that proportionality delivers a relative equivalence, Beauvoir shows how punishment is always asymmetrical because it is justified on something other than the crime itself.

In ‘Eye for an Eye,’ she argues that revenge appeals since it is something that ‘retains a whiff of magic’ that ‘strives to satisfy some unknown dark god of symmetry’.8 But revenge cannot bring the satisfaction one would hope for, even in the case of the most horrible crimes where perpetrators objectify others by reducing them into ‘mere panting flesh’. 9 ‘True’ revenge emerges spontaneously. It is a ‘metaphysical’ demand which has ‘no goal outside of itself’. 10 For example, where a victim can reverse the master-​bondsman relationship.11 But even there, revenge could devolve into torture since punishment can never restore what was lost. Revenge achieves only a temporal reversal by forcing others to see their own tragic ambiguity, rather than appealing to their freedom. Beauvoir does not suggest punishment can be avoided, especially if the offender threatens to cause more harm in a community. The problem with revenge is that it is deeply contradictory, pursuing an impossible equation that can only be satisfied in fiction books. The failure of punishment is best exemplified by the ‘elaborate forms’ created by society to envelope the spontaneity required for revenge, including the law and criminal justice institutions.

Legal punishment retains the ‘whiff of magic’ of revenge because it is a metaphysical aspiration that always aims at something beyond itself, such as the abstract morality of a formalistic law or the political ends that characterize utilitarianism. As such, it is bound to fail.For example, she likens criminal courts to vigilantes avenging an injury of an anonymous universal ‘other’, while at the same time acting like a sovereign consciousness with the authority to make others pay for a crime. When the offenders appears in court, they are no longer the sovereign consciousness that acted regardless of the harm to others. Instead, they are fragile individuals whose punishment is justified through something other than the crime itself. Punishment devolves into the state’s will to punish while the offender’s subjectivity becomes an ‘abstract symbol’ of the values rejected by society. Since the spontaneity of revenge faded down, trials legitimize the authority of the law through ‘a comedy of words’ whereby the whole process is ‘designed to endow the sentence with the greatest expressive power possible’.12 In other words, criminal justice is an empty performance lacking a body and cut off from the brief temporality of the offence. To understand her critique, we need to situate her analysis of revenge within the framework of embodiment. Embodiment is situated in an ever-​changing temporality, which in the case of crime, essentially creates a distance between the offender and the offence. Punishment can only grasp a ‘mirage of exteriority’.13 What is left is an abstract justice haunted by failure because it ceased to link the crime to the punishment.
This failure is not due to a lack of ideas. The failure is not realizing how the justification of punishment through a perfect equivalence has been always impossible. Yet, the ambiguity of punishment is masked in order to legitimize it. The ethical and political struggle is a constant. Beauvoir’s lesson is in her method of critique: By staging the impossibility of equivalence at every stage of the analysis, she is also resisting the compelling passion of revenge and the alluring purity of abstract legal processes. Her reading compels us to abandon and constantly question facile equivalences in penal discourses that offer the ‘serene recovery of a reasonable and just order’.14

The penal equation cannot achieve that goal, as the Paris attacks and the responses to attacks themselves demonstrate: Mosques vandalized in Canada and the US, multinational war coalitions bombing Iraq and Syria, and President Hollande’s vow to ‘destroy’ IS, and ISIL’s equal vow to terrorize France and everyone else.

While the political protagonists (ISIL and elected leaders) get absorbed in the old-​age cycle of revenge, allegedly cleansed by metaphysical reasons (the aspiration for something beyond the crime itself), people in 11tharrondisment and even those directly affected seem to understand better the core of Beauvoir’s reflection about post-​war Paris. That is, their interdependence and the need to undercut and deflate what Judith Butler calls ‘the terrible satisfactions of war’, best represented by a statement which is going viral in social media made by a man whose wife was killed at the Bataclan:‘Vous n’aurez pas ma haine’ (‘I will not grant you the gift of my hatred’). Perhaps even stronger than the metaphysical need for revenge, there is a more earthly concern at play. Echoing the tragic ambiguity of co-​existence in Beauvoir’s essay on punishment, Judith Butler articulates more clearly what is at stake. Drawing on Melanie Klein, Butler argues that if ‘individuation is never complete, and dependency never really overcome, a broader ethical dilemma emerges: how not to destroy the other or others whom I need in order to live’.15

About The Author:

Nayeli Urquiza Haas’ work analyses the role of vulnerability in legal theory, particularly in criminal law, and the effects and exclusions that occur when vulnerability is uttered in the spaces dominated by concerns about security and protection against injury. She has recently obtained her PhD at Kent Law School. Her thesis offers a critique of criminal law, explored through the case study of women sentenced in England for drug mule work.

  1. Simone de Beauvoir, “Eye for an Eye: Introduction by Kristiana Arp,” inSimone de Beauvoir: Philosophical Writings, edited by Margaret Simmons, Marybeth Timmerman, and Mary Beth Mader (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004), 246. 
  2. Melissa M. Ptacek, “Simone de Beauvoir’s Algerian War: Torture and the Rejection of Ethics,” Theory and Society, November 4 (2015): 1 – 37. 
  3. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex. Edited by Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier (London and New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2011), 750. 
  4. See: Anne Morgan, “Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Freedom and Absolute Evil,” Hypatia 23, no. 4 (2008): 75 – 89. 
  5. Simone de Beauvoir, “Eye for an Eye,” 258 
  6. Debra Bergoffen, “Between the Ethical and the Political: The Difference of Ambiguity,” In The Existential Phenomenology of Simone de Beauvoir, edited by Wendy O’Brien and Lester Embree (Dordrecht: Springer Science& Business Media, 2001), 188. 
  7. Kristiana Arp, “Eye for an Eye: Introduction by Kristiana Arp,” In Simone de Beauvoir: Philosophical Writings, edited by Margaret Simmons, Marybeth Timmerman, and Mary Beth Mader (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004), 237 –260. 
  8. Simone de Beauvoir, “Eye for an Eye,” 247. 
  9. De Beauvoir reflected on this through the experience of the rape of Djamila Boupacha in the Algerian War. See: Sonia Kruks, Simone de Beauvoir and the Politics of Ambiguity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 162. 
  10. Simone de Beauvoir, “Eye for an Eye,” 248. 
  11. Sonia Kruks, Simone de Beauvoir and the Politics of Ambiguity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012). 
  12. Simone de Beauvoir, “Eye for an Eye,” 252. 
  13. Ibid., 255. 
  14. Ibid., 259. 
  15. Judith Butler, “‘The Death Penalty’ by Jacques Derrida, Translated by Peggy Kamuf,” London Review of Books, Vol. 36 No. 14 • 17 July 2014, 32. Accessible also at http://www.lrb.co.uk/v36/n14/judith-butler/on-cruelty.


-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,10,Abkhazia,2,Abortion Laws,1,Academics,10,Accidents,22,Activism,1,Adani Group,5,ADB,13,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,13,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,88,Africa,113,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,20,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,7,Air Force,29,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,5,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,4,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,3,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,3,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,3,Artificial Intelligence,83,Artillery,2,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,12,Asia,70,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,8,Australia,57,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,131,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,3,Aviation,63,AWACS,2,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,2,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,28,Banking,53,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,3,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,13,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,19,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,4,Birth,1,BISA,1,Bitcoin,9,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,2,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,3,Bond Market,2,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,7,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,105,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,20,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,4,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1215,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,56,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,10,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Cement,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,82,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,48,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,582,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,67,Climate Change,25,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,44,Coal,6,Coast Guard,3,Cocoa,1,Cognitive Computing,13,Cold War,5,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,109,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,2,Construction,5,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,5,COP26,4,COP28,1,COP29,1,Copper,2,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,4,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,17,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,7,Culture,5,Currency,8,Customer Exeperience,1,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,7,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,116,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,13,Decision Support System,5,Defense,12,Defense Deals,8,Deforestation,2,Deloitte,1,Democracy,22,Democrats,2,Demographic Studies,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,2,Digital Economy,11,Digital Marketing,7,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,14,Diplomatic Row,4,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,2,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,3,Doklam,2,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,48,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,14,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,4,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,8,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,Ebrahim Raisi,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,43,Economy,109,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,4,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,55,Education,67,EFTA,1,Egypt,27,Election Disinformation,1,Elections,44,Electric Vehicle,15,Electricity,7,Electronics,9,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,19,Energy,316,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,24,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,47,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,14,European Union,234,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,6,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1383,Federal Reserve,2,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,59,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Five Eyes,1,Floods,2,Food Security,27,Forces,1,Forecasting,3,Foreign Policy,13,Forex,4,France,33,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Free Trade Agreement,1,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,Frigate,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,13,GCC,11,GDP,14,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,3,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,8,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,105,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,9,Georgia,12,Georgian,1,geospatial,9,Geothermal,2,Germany,71,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,96,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,11,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,20,Gorkhaland,1,Government,128,Government Analytics,1,Government Bond,1,GPS,1,Greater Asia,177,Greece,14,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,3,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gulf of Tonkin,1,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hamas,10,Hasan,1,Health,8,Healthcare,72,Heatwave,2,Helicopter,12,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,16,Houthi,12,Howitzer,1,Human Development,32,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,7,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,5,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,2,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,76,Immigration,19,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,665,India's,1,Indian Air Force,19,Indian Army,7,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,27,Indian Ocean,24,Indices,1,Indigenous rights,1,Indo-Pacific,7,Indonesia,20,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,4,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,10,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,35,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,4,Investment,33,Investor Relations,1,IPEF,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,206,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,4,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,145,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,136,Italy,10,Ivory Coast,1,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,92,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,JMSDF,1,Joe Biden,8,Joint Strike Fighter,5,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kaspersky,1,Kazakhstan,26,Kenya,5,Khalistan,2,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Korean Conflict,1,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Large language models,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,82,Law,6,Leadership,3,Lebanon,10,Legal,11,LGBTQ,2,Li Keqiang,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Liechtenstein,1,Lifestyle,1,Light Battle Tank,1,Linkedin,1,Lithuania,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,9,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,8,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,13,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,16,Marijuana,1,Marine Biology,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,50,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,2,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,MediaWiki,1,Medical,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,18,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,3,Mexico,14,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,112,Military Exercise,11,Military Service,2,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,16,Missile Launching Facilities,6,Missile Systems,57,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,12,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,11,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Mutual Funds,1,Myanmar,30,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Namibia,1,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,2,NASA,13,National Identification Card,1,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,34,Natural Disasters,16,Natural Gas,33,Natural Language Processing,1,Nauru,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,24,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,50,Navigation,2,Navy,23,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Nearshoring,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Netflix,1,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,7,News,1277,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nikki Haley,1,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,54,North Korea,59,Norway,5,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,41,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Energy,4,Nuclear Fussion,1,Nuclear Propulsion,2,Nuclear Security,47,Nuclear Submarine,1,NYSE,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,5,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,383,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,73,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,OpenAI,2,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,696,Opinon Poll,1,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,181,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,24,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,2,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,6,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,14,Philippines,19,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,4,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,53,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,6,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,18,Private Equity,2,Private Military Contractors,2,Privatization,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,13,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publications,1,Publishing,7,Purchasing Managers' Index,1,Putin,7,Q&A,1,Qatar,114,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,4,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,9,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RBI,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,6,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,5,Referendum,5,Reforms,18,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,2,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,18,Report,4,Reports,50,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,2,Research,5,Research and Development,25,Restructuring,1,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Rice,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,318,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,6,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,130,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,396,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,3,Securities,2,Security,6,Semiconductor,20,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,5,Serbia,4,Services Sector,1,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,11,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,5,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,17,Situational Awareness,20,Small Modular Nuclear Reactors,1,Smart Cities,7,Smartphones,1,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,16,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,48,South Asia,474,South China Sea,36,South East Asia,77,South Korea,63,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,9,Space,46,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Education,1,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,24,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,Statistics,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,23,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,4,Submarine,16,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,48,Surveillance,13,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,6,Syria,112,Taiwan,33,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,3,Taxation,25,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,77,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,11,The Middle East,655,Think Tank,317,Tibet,3,TikTok,2,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,3,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,14,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,20,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,47,Travel and Tourism,15,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,140,UAV,23,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,113,Ukraine War,26,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,2,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,83,United Nations,28,United States,765,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,12,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,18,US Postal Service,1,US Senate,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,22,USV,1,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,19,Venture Capital,4,Vibrant Gujarat,1,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,25,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WeChat,1,WEF,3,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whales,1,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,3,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,14,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,38,World Economy,32,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,28,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
IndraStra Global: OPINION | The Folly of Vengeance: Thinking through the Paris attacks with Simone de Beauvoir
OPINION | The Folly of Vengeance: Thinking through the Paris attacks with Simone de Beauvoir
In the wake of the Paris attacks on November 13, international media highlighted how it was the deadliest attack since the Second World War, which was quickly rebutted when it was pointed out that up to 200 Algerians had been massacred in Paris in 1961 after protesting the colonial war in Algeria.
IndraStra Global
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content