Urban Affairs of Budget 2021

By Tathagata Chatterji, Professor (Urban Management & Governance), Xavier University Bhubaneswar

 

By Tathagata Chatterji

Professor (Urban Management & Governance), Xavier University Bhubaneswar


Urban Affairs of Budget 2021

Coronavirus had badly impacted urban India, which accommodates one-third of its population and two-thirds of economic production. Metro cities, which are nerve centers of the economy and gateways to global trade, turned into pandemic epicenters. Millions of jobs were lost during the COVID-19 peak and lockdown phase, which triggered an unprecedented wave of deurbanization of migrant workers.

 

The pandemic had also widened urban social divides. Ignored and entrenched socioeconomic inequalities in our city systems regarding access to water, sanitation, healthcare, and digital connectivity, have come out in the open. It is imperative to get our cities, especially metropolitan cities, up and running again, create jobs, and meet India's burgeoning youth population's livelihood aspirations.

 

Would the first post-pandemic Budget help us restart our city economies in full throttle and help us build better, healthier, and more humane cities? Analysis of the Budget presents a mixed picture. Finance Minister (FM) Nirmala Sitharaman addressed several issues related to urban infrastructure while presenting the Union Budget 2021-22.

 

Total funds earmarked for the urban development have also gone up from Rs 50,040 crore in FY 2020-21 to Rs 54,581 crore in FY 2021-22, an overall increase of 9.07 percent. However, funds allocated for transfer to the states for centrally sponsored schemes had remained static at Rs 24,845 between FY 2020-21 and FY-2020-22. Moreover, devolution of grants to the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) had also gone down from Rs 25,098 crore in FY 2019-20 to Rs 22,114 crore in FY 2021-22 – a drop of 11.89 percent.

Urban-centric issues in the budget speech could be broadly grouped around the themes of cleanliness, mobility, and shelter.

Cleanliness

The Economic Survey 2021-22 and the 15th Finance Commission report strongly emphasized the criticality of sanitation and water services in the COVID-19. With cleanliness high on the government's priority table, the Swatch Bharat Mission received a new impetus in the Budget. Announcing Swatch Bharat Mission 2.0, FM mentioned that the scheme would aim towards complete fecal sludge management and wastewater treatment, source segregation of garbage, reduce single-use plastic and manage waste construction-and-demolition activities, and bioremediation of garbage dump sites. The second phase of the mission would be implemented over five years through an outlay of rupees 1.41 lakh crore.

Additionally, Rs 2,217 crore was allocated to address air pollution in 42 big cities with more than one million. Moreover, to provide universal piped water supply in all 4,378 ULBs over the next five years, the FM announced the Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban) launching with an allocation of Rs 2.87 lakh crore.

Mobility

FM highlighted both bus and rail-based systems under mobility. Presently, the country has a metro rail network of 702 km, and another 1,016 km of the network is under-construction in 27 Indian cities. She declared that expansion of rail-based mass transit system shall be carried out for Tier-II cities and fringe areas of Tier-I cities primarily through MetroLite and MetroNeo technologies.

According to the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), the Metrolite trains would have 3-car units capable of carrying 300 passengers at a maximum speed of 60 km per hour. The trains would be powered by 750V DC overhead traction and standard run-on gauge of 1435 mm width laid at grade or elevated. MetroLite trains' capital costs are about 40 percent of conventional metro lines and are also cheaper to maintain. The MetroNeo trains, which even cheaper, can run on road slabs and have rubber tires.

Adaptation of light rail systems will provide a cleaner and greener mass transit system at a cheaper cost. The Budget also announced that the Centre would provide counterpart funding for the extension of the metro rail networks of Kochi (Rs 1957 crore), Chennai (Rs 63,246), Bengaluru (Rs 14,788), Nagpur (5,9575), and Nashik (Rs 2092 crore).

The budget also announced a scheme to augment city bus services through an 'innovative' PPP (Public-Private Partnership) model. It was mentioned 20,000 new buses would be added for which Rs 18,000 crore is allocated. But what form and shape the 'innovative PPP mode' would take and reconfigure public-sector bus transport undertakings remains to be seen.

Shelter

The government announced an affordable rental housing program as a sub-scheme under the PMAY (Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana), through PPP mode as part of the economic stimulus package in May 2020. The Budget 2021-22 sought to facilitate affordable housing through indirect measures by extending tax breaks for the developers of notified affordable housing projects. Similarly, income tax rebates of Rs 1.5 lakh for individual home buyers were also extended until March 2022.

With the pandemic accelerating the digitalization process, it was hoped that the FM would announce additional funds for the Smart Cities Mission, a flagship initiative of the NDA government. Moreover, Integrated Command and Control Centres developed under the mission played significant roles in the battle against the coronavirus pandemic through spatial tracking of virus outbreaks, hospital beds' availability, and targeted emergency medical assistance delivery. But the prestigious mission failed to receive any additional support in Budget 2021-22. Similarly, the allocation for the AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation) had remained static between FY 2020-21 and 2021-22.

Both missions were launched in 2015 to upgrade Indian cities to international standards by infusing digital technology and streamlining management practices. However, five years down the road, both projects are struggling with low fund utilization. In the revised Budget for FY 2020-21, the Smart Cities allocation was sharply cut by Rs 3050 from the original allocation of Rs 6450 crore, while AMRUT faced a more modest reduction of Rs 850 crore from allocated Rs 7300 crore. In FY 2021-22, both the missions are assigned with the same amount as in the previous year.

Expectations from Budget 2021-22 of an urban employment guarantee program went in vain after the COVID-19 induced a livelihood crisis of informal workers in the cities. The hopes were in line with the rural-centric MGNREGA to reduce vulnerabilities of the urban poor.

The Budget failed to provide any additional financial support for the ongoing urban poverty alleviation program- Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana National Urban Livelihood Mission (DAY-NULM). The self-help groups (SHG) registered under the DAY-NULM in various states contributed enormously to the battle against the pandemic by producing over 6.80 crore masks and 2,84,000 liters of hand sanitizers. Moreover, the mission had generated over 21 lakh livelihoods.

But in Budget 2021-22, the DAY-NULM was allocated only Rs 795 crore  - the same amount as in FY 2019-20. Additionally, Rs 200 crore was allocated for PM SVANIDHI (Prime Minister's Street Vendor Atmanirbhar Nidhi) and Rs 100 crore under Nirman Kaushal Vikas Yojana (NKVY). More generous funding for these ameliorating poverty schemes could have helped reduce the urban poor's livelihood vulnerabilities in these difficult times.

The DAY- NULM, together with PM- SVANIDHI and NKVY account for only Rs 1,095, just about 10 percent of their rural counterparts. The rural livelihood mission- Ajeevika was allocated Rs 10,005 crore in FY 2019-20, which had gone up to Rs 14,473 crore in FY 2021-22- a sharp 44.65 percent increase. Even though India is going through a process of steady urbanization of poverty, acknowledgment of the phenomenon seems limited in the top policy circles.

To sum up, the Budget had reposed faith in the supply-side approach, focusing on augmenting urban infrastructure and had sought to favor the PPP model to deliver significant projects. Except for metro rail projects, direct budgetary support for urban sector schemes does not show any appreciable increase. This could be attributed to the difficulties faced by the government due to covid-induced economic downturn and shortfalls in revenue collection.

However, the flow of funds for urban development may improve substantially in near future, as the FM tabled the report of the 15th Finance Commission on the day of the budget presentation. The 15th Finance Commission has allocated Rs 1.21 lakh crore in grants to the ULBs over five years compared to Rs 87,000 crore by the 14th Finance Commission. Recognizing the importance of the million-plus cities in the Indian economy, the 15th Finance Commission has set aside Rs 38,196 crore has been set aside as performance-linked grants for 50 million-plus cities.

Basic grants are available for smaller ULBs. Moreover, the 15th Finance Commission also suggested an additional grant of Rs 70,051 crore to rural and urban local governments for developing public health infrastructure and primary health clinics. If implemented properly, these recommendations can improve the financial health of Indian cities and reduce disparities with regard to health care facilities in Indian cities. However, to enable the ULBs to utilize additional fund flows optimally, it would be necessary to improve their techno-managerial capacities simultaneously. 

About the Author:

Tathagata Chatterji is a professor of Urban Management and Governance at Xavier University Bhubaneswar and a visiting faculty at IIEST Shibpur. Earlier, he taught at SPA Vijayawada, Manipal University, and at the University of Queensland. His research interest focuses on comparative urban governance, rural-urban interface, and spatial politics.


IndraStra Global is now available on
Apple NewsGoogle News, Flipboard, Feedburner, and Telegram

DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this insight piece are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of IndraStra Global.
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,8,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,83,Africa,109,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,6,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,2,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,2,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,2,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,10,Asia,65,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,45,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,124,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,58,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,20,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,11,Book Review,18,Border Conflicts,9,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,17,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1026,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,6,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,74,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,47,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,471,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,15,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,43,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,9,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,81,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,2,COP26,4,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,14,Counter Terrorism,80,COVID,7,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,13,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,5,Currency,7,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,105,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,11,Decision Support System,5,Defense,10,Defense Deals,6,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,8,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,2,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,40,Economy,77,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,4,Education,61,Egypt,24,Elections,30,Electric Vehicle,11,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,311,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,25,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,46,ePayments,12,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,3,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,7,European Union,221,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,4,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1172,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,17,Financial Markets,49,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,12,Fishery,3,Food Security,23,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,3,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,21,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,9,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,61,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,2,Google,15,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,130,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,2,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,29,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,69,Immigration,17,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,551,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,24,Indian Ocean,17,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,3,Indonesia,17,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,6,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,8,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,189,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,120,IT ITeS,131,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,63,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,LGBTQ,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,13,Lifestyle,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,8,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,39,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,10,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,9,Military-Industrial Complex,2,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,52,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,25,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,13,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,30,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,30,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,20,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,45,Navigation,2,Navy,22,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,5,News,1069,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,22,North America,41,North Korea,49,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,38,Nuclear Agreement,31,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,44,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,356,Oil Gas,6,Oil Price,61,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,128,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,619,Pacific,5,Pakistan,160,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,40,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,7,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,109,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,16,Reports,39,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,20,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,275,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,13,Saudi Arabia,123,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,342,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,5,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,13,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,13,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,411,South China Sea,31,South East Asia,61,South Korea,42,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,41,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,22,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,19,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,40,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,17,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,4,Syria,111,Taiwan,20,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,1,Taxation,23,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,23,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,74,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,7,The Middle East,614,Think Tank,294,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,10,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,132,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,98,Ukraine War,10,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,71,United Nations,27,United States,661,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,19,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,12,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,27,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: Urban Affairs of Budget 2021
Urban Affairs of Budget 2021
By Tathagata Chatterji, Professor (Urban Management & Governance), Xavier University Bhubaneswar
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-y0Hnloe_-64/YDkO9ar-JwI/AAAAAAAAG-g/eW2yXgzcguAvmDkmqU9BesAv89Iast_LQCLcBGAsYHQ/w640-h320/AIDN007012021%2B%252878%2529.gif
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-y0Hnloe_-64/YDkO9ar-JwI/AAAAAAAAG-g/eW2yXgzcguAvmDkmqU9BesAv89Iast_LQCLcBGAsYHQ/s72-w640-c-h320/AIDN007012021%2B%252878%2529.gif
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2021/02/Urban-Affairs-Budget-2021.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2021/02/Urban-Affairs-Budget-2021.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content