Gas Looms Large in Eastern Mediterranean Geopolitics

By Ramu C.M., Department of Geopolitics and International Relations, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (Deemed-to-be-University), Karnataka, India

By Ramu C.M.
Doctoral Candidate, Department of Geopolitics and International Relations, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (Deemed-to-be-University), Karnataka, India

Gas Looms Large in Eastern Mediterranean Geopolitics By Ramu C.M.

Cover Image Attribute: Moshe Shai/FLASH90 via The Times of Israel

The West Asian region, with its turbulent geopolitics, continues to don a pivotal role in the global politico-economic arena. On one side, there is the meteoric rise of the Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman (MBS) and his bold domestic reforms. Elsewhere, the alleged Saudi meddling in Lebanese polity – by virtue of the “Hariri affair” – upheld the unabated prominence of this region to the global geopolitical discourse. As it stands, the Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri apparently revoked his resignation, days after it was seemingly forced upon him by the Saudi ruling elite during the former’s visit to the Kingdom. Both Hariri and the Saudis have denied any allegation of political arm-twisting. Nevertheless, the Lebanese PM has ever since taken a critical stance on Lebanon’s Hezbollah – the Iranian protégé which is part of Hariri’s consensus-backed national unity government. Just as the flames were calming in Lebanon, U.S. President Donald Trump dropped a bombshell by declaring Jerusalem the capital of Israel. With this, he broke away from years of the unwavering American policy of neutrality towards the contested status of the holy city. That said, these earth-shattering events merely form a cog in the wheel where combustion is provided by the ever-simmering Saudi-Iran proxy rivalry – be it across the ‘Shia-corridor’ transcending Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, or in Yemen down south.

The terms instability and volatility have long been synonymous with West Asian geopolitics. This has been so, thanks to a history of extra-regional meddling as well as intra-regional rivalries – many a time exacerbated not only by the resource curse problem but also because of inherent ethno-sectarian fault lines. In the domain of resource politics, the center of gravity of international focus keeps shifting between the multiple petroleum reservoirs that are disseminated across the region’s massive resource trough. Under the prevailing circumstances, it is possible to establish an inextricable linkage between the recent series of events in West Asia and the realigning fulcrum of resource contest within the regional geopolitical-cum-geoeconomic landscape. While some analyses treat the resource angle as paramount to understanding the roots of certain geostrategic predicaments, yet many either overlook the resource dimension or sidestep its mention in order to play it safe. Regardless of whether it is considered a frontal issue or just a sideshow, the realpolitik associated with resource exploitation pervades multiple segments of the many crises spanning West Asia.

The Eastern Mediterranean Gas Fields / Source: Crystol Energy


The Murky Geopolitics of Natural Gas

Seldom does one turn a blind eye to the role played by hydrocarbon resources in the geopolitics of the Persian Gulf region. However, oil and natural gas hardly ever featured in the analysis of the geopolitical forces at play along with the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Surprisingly though, it is pure conjecture to relegate hydrocarbons from the emerging geopolitical discourse on the Eastern Mediterranean. The reason for this is the recent discoveries of promising natural gas reserves in the Levantine Basin – transcending the maritime Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Cyprus respectively. Therefore, it can be ascertained with the reasonable logic that natural gas can emerge as a potential game-changer in the evolving contours of the region’s geopolitics as well as geoeconomics. As a case in point, Israel has amicably demarcated its maritime border with Cyprus; but the one with Lebanon remains disputed. The issue of conflicting maritime jurisdictions with Hamas-controlled Gaza is another sticking point.

The overlapping EEZs of Israel and Lebanon are believed to be resting on potential “goldmines” of natural gas. To elucidate, Israel’s only commercial gas field till date is the Tamar gas field which is in close proximity to the disputed maritime border with Lebanon. This, coupled with the much larger Leviathan gas field (recently discovered near the Cypriot maritime border), can propel Israel to be not only self-sufficient in gas but also be a net exporter to neighboring countries like Jordan – and for that matter – even Turkey. The latest friction between Israel and Lebanon stemmed from the latter’s decision to offer parts of the disputed territory for prequalification bidding rounds to interested foreign oil companies. In response to this, Israel further upped the ante with regard to introducing a ‘maritime areas law’ that allows it to unilaterally impose its sovereignty over the disputed territory. The bill for the same is being discussed in the Knesset – the Israeli Parliament. Israel’s retort has once again sparked tensions between the two countries, with Hezbollah and the more politically-representative Shiite Amal Movement spearheading the counterpunch from the Lebanese side. Israel’s motivations are being compared with its earlier annexation of the Shebaa Farms area – an incident that Lebanon staunchly considers as an Israeli violation of the former’s sovereignty. 

As far as hydrocarbon exploration in the Lebanese waters is concerned, there are two important factors that worry foreign investors. One is the constant tension between Israel and Lebanon (though more specifically Hezbollah), while the other is attributed to the history of political infighting within Lebanon. One possible explanation for Israeli gas interests in the Saudi-Hariri episode alludes to a deliberate exacerbation of the latent fissures between the Hariri faction and the Hezbollah-Amal faction in Lebanon. Such differences had been temporarily put to rest when in a rare display of acquiescence, the two factions decided to come together to form a stable government. Lebanon is currently facing immense economic duress and the need to woo foreign investors and exploit the gas reserves has never been this pressing. This could perhaps push Hariri to accept the Saudi-Israeli-American gambit of blaming Hezbollah (and its patron Iran) for stonewalling the negotiations with Israel over the demarcation of the maritime border.

The United States has time and again been a "volunteer mediator" in the bilateral dispute negotiations. This gives more reason to assume that a quid pro quo is being offered to Hariri to sever his rather need-based and difficult relationship with Hezbollah. Sometimes, such offers are accompanied with a bit of muscle-flexing, as witnessed in the case of the mysterious Hariri episode in Saudi Arabia. Now whether or not the two parties reach a modus vivendi with regard to the dispute settlement, it is hardly going to matter to Israel vis-à-vis the costs to Lebanon. Israel is ostensibly employing foreign contractors to prospect for hydrocarbons on its side of the disputed waters. The more prolonged the dispute becomes, the greater are the chances of Israeli subversion by way of the “two straws in one glass” phenomenon. Simply put, if two persons are drinking from the same glass using two straws, the one that sucks the fastest gets most of the juice. Similarly, if an oil/gas reservoir transcends overlapping EEZs, active extraction on one end could lead to migration of the hydrocarbons from the other end to this end by virtue of reservoir pressure difference. Absent an effective negotiating framework with Hamas, Israel is already suspected of using this natural principle to its advantage in the waters off Gaza.

The ‘Noble’ Deal

These days, the Levantine gas booty is making headlines in a big way. One particular oil company that has reaped major dividends from the associated exploration contracts is the Houston-based Noble Energy. The American oil major was primarily instrumental in the gas discoveries off (offshore) both Israeli and Cypriot waters; it played a substantive role in the discoveries of the Tamar and Leviathan gas fields off Israel and the Aphrodite field off Cyprus. However, some audacious lobbying was the key to Noble Energy’s triumph over other more established and experienced transnational majors. George Papadopoulos, an American-of-Greek-origin, who at the time was working at the Hudson Institute, had supposedly acted as a prime interlocutor in bridging the deal between the Israeli government and Noble Energy. Hudson Institute is a think-tank well known for its staunch position on climate-denial. On top of its neoconservative inclinations, it boasts of strong links with both the AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee) and Noble Energy. It is no coincidence that Papadopoulos was chosen as a foreign policy adviser to Trump’s Presidential campaign team; although his short stint soon came to an end after being indicted in the alleged “Russia-hacking” scandal. It is also no surprise that Trump formerly held shares worth an approximate USD 1.12 million in Noble Energy.
Notwithstanding the sudden slump in his otherwise promising career, Papadopoulos’ writings on the Levant’s offshore gas potential resonated well with his calls for a US-Israel-Greece-Cyprus strategic convergence in the Eastern Mediterranean. With regard to Cyprus, the unilateral decision by the Greek Cypriot government to move ahead with hydrocarbon exploration did not go well with Turkish strongman Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Turkey is demanding a piece of the pie by way of its suzerainty over the northern part of the ethnolinguistically divided island nation. Meanwhile, in order to placate Erdogan, Israel is already negotiating a lucrative gas supply contract with Turkey. At the cornerstone of these talks is a gas pipeline which would not only help Turkey to diversify its gas imports but also reduce its excessive dependence on Russian and Iranian gas.  Despite the new avenues that natural gas has opened up for Israel, it is not as hunky-dory as it seems. Noble Energy’s monopoly (alongside its Israeli partners) in notable Israeli offshore prospects had brought it at loggerheads with the country’s hydrocarbon exploration regulatory regime and certain civil society groups. An anti-trust lawsuit against Noble was upheld by the Supreme Court of Israel, and this has pushed the government to make necessary amends to include more foreign players – including a diverse portfolio of operators and consortiums.

A steady oil price recovery would drastically improve the prospects of an Israel-centred natural gas trading hub. The current combination of relatively stable oil prices (near the USD 60 mark) and the gradually subsiding global oil glut should help revive some of Noble Energy’s frozen investments in the Leviathan project. This should come as an added bonus to the American company and the Israeli government as they negotiate a way out of the regulatory wrangle. Given the unique circumstances, a potent trigger for a sudden oil price hike lies in the deepening Saudi-Iran hostility, inter alia, involving Lebanon. Hence, even though the Saudi-Israel rapprochement started out somewhat vaguely under the tenure of the late King Abdullah, Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu appears to have found a reliable friend in the incumbent King Salman and his visionary son, Mohammed. The archetypal middleman in this relationship is the United States, while common nemesis Iran provides the perfect binding factor.


A well-anticipated Levantine energy boom has the capability to reorient pre-established and time-tested strategic alignments in the West Asian region. In the case of Israel, natural gas could act as a classic tool of diplomacy in its calculated long-term strategy of placating its Arab neighbors. The pan-Arabism that was once the existential threat to Israel’s Zionism is slowly losing its steam as more Arab countries are buying into the “Iran-phobia” that is being propped up by the Israel-US-Saudi triumvirate. An Israeli natural gas boom would not only fire up this transformation but also give Israel more political and economic leverage over its neighbors in dispute settlements and negotiations. This may beget a more passive approach towards the two-state solution (concerning Israel and Palestine), especially from the once-diehard advocates of Palestinian solidarity. Being already a technological powerhouse, self-reliance in energy is the only thing that stands in the way of Israel’s upthrust as a major power to reckon with.

The persisting oil glut has so far managed to offset any large-scale impact of geopolitical shocks on global oil prices. However, factors like negotiated production cuts, changing oil price variables and market determinants signal to a gradual drying up of the excess supply scenario; hence, a likely return of bullish sentiments to an otherwise depressed, or rather slowly-recovering market. A more encouraging sign is the increasing demand for natural gas as a cleaner alternative to coal and oil, and more so as a bridge-fuel in the gradual transition to more renewable forms of energy. Given the sui generis nature of present and probable geoeconomic trends, it discernibly pays to exacerbate tensions in the West Asian geopolitical theatre. And in the foreseeable future, say incessant regional tensions does engender a sudden spike in oil prices, the resulting scenario would probably see a revival in oilfield investments off the Eastern Mediterranean. Given such a possibility, perhaps those responsible for beating the drums of war in West Asia are not as insane after all.   

About the Author:

Ramu C.M (TR RID: N-6416-2015) is a Ph.D. Candidate at the Department of Geopolitics and International Relations, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (Deemed-to-be-University), Karnataka, India. His working thesis is entitled “The Geopolitics of Hydrocarbons across the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Basin: A Study on Geopolitical Imperatives and Policy Implications”. His primary research interests are: The Geopolitics of Energy and Natural Resources (particularly Hydrocarbons), the Middle East, Transcaucasia and Central Asia.

Cite this Article:

C.M., Ramu "Gas Looms Large in Eastern Mediterranean Geopolitics" IndraStra Global Vol. 04, Issue No: 01 (2018), 0010, | ISSN 2381-3652

C.M., Ramu "Gas Looms Large in Eastern Mediterranean Geopolitics" IndraStra Global Vol. 04, Issue No: 01 (2018), 0010, | ISSN 2381-3652

DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of IndraStra Global.

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,10,Abkhazia,2,Abortion Laws,1,Academics,10,Accidents,22,Activism,1,Adani Group,5,ADB,13,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,13,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,88,Africa,113,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,20,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,7,Air Force,29,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,5,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,4,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,3,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,3,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,3,Artificial Intelligence,83,Artillery,2,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,12,Asia,70,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,8,Australia,57,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,131,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,3,Aviation,63,AWACS,2,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,2,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,28,Banking,53,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,3,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,13,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,19,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,4,Birth,1,BISA,1,Bitcoin,9,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,2,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,3,Bond Market,2,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,7,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,105,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,20,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,4,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1215,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,56,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,10,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Cement,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,82,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,48,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,582,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,67,Climate Change,25,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,44,Coal,6,Coast Guard,3,Cocoa,1,Cognitive Computing,13,Cold War,5,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,109,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,2,Construction,5,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,5,COP26,4,COP28,1,COP29,1,Copper,2,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,4,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,17,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,7,Culture,5,Currency,8,Customer Exeperience,1,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,7,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,116,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,13,Decision Support System,5,Defense,12,Defense Deals,8,Deforestation,2,Deloitte,1,Democracy,22,Democrats,2,Demographic Studies,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,2,Digital Economy,11,Digital Marketing,7,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,14,Diplomatic Row,4,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,2,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,3,Doklam,2,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,48,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,14,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,4,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,8,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,Ebrahim Raisi,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,43,Economy,109,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,4,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,55,Education,67,EFTA,1,Egypt,27,Election Disinformation,1,Elections,44,Electric Vehicle,15,Electricity,7,Electronics,9,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,19,Energy,316,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,24,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,47,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,14,European Union,234,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,6,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1383,Federal Reserve,2,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,59,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Five Eyes,1,Floods,2,Food Security,27,Forces,1,Forecasting,3,Foreign Policy,13,Forex,4,France,33,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Free Trade Agreement,1,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,Frigate,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,13,GCC,11,GDP,14,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,3,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,8,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,105,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,9,Georgia,12,Georgian,1,geospatial,9,Geothermal,2,Germany,71,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,96,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,11,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,20,Gorkhaland,1,Government,128,Government Analytics,1,Government Bond,1,GPS,1,Greater Asia,177,Greece,14,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,3,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gulf of Tonkin,1,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hamas,10,Hasan,1,Health,8,Healthcare,72,Heatwave,2,Helicopter,12,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,16,Houthi,12,Howitzer,1,Human Development,32,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,7,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,5,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,2,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,76,Immigration,19,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,665,India's,1,Indian Air Force,19,Indian Army,7,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,27,Indian Ocean,24,Indices,1,Indigenous rights,1,Indo-Pacific,7,Indonesia,20,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,4,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,10,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,35,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,4,Investment,33,Investor Relations,1,IPEF,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,206,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,4,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,145,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,136,Italy,10,Ivory Coast,1,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,92,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,JMSDF,1,Joe Biden,8,Joint Strike Fighter,5,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kaspersky,1,Kazakhstan,26,Kenya,5,Khalistan,2,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Korean Conflict,1,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Large language models,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,82,Law,6,Leadership,3,Lebanon,10,Legal,11,LGBTQ,2,Li Keqiang,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Liechtenstein,1,Lifestyle,1,Light Battle Tank,1,Linkedin,1,Lithuania,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,9,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,8,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,13,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,16,Marijuana,1,Marine Biology,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,50,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,2,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,MediaWiki,1,Medical,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,18,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,3,Mexico,14,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,112,Military Exercise,11,Military Service,2,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,16,Missile Launching Facilities,6,Missile Systems,57,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,12,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,11,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Mutual Funds,1,Myanmar,30,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Namibia,1,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,2,NASA,13,National Identification Card,1,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,34,Natural Disasters,16,Natural Gas,33,Natural Language Processing,1,Nauru,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,24,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,50,Navigation,2,Navy,23,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Nearshoring,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Netflix,1,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,7,News,1277,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nikki Haley,1,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,54,North Korea,59,Norway,5,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,41,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Energy,4,Nuclear Fussion,1,Nuclear Propulsion,2,Nuclear Security,47,Nuclear Submarine,1,NYSE,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,5,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,383,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,73,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,OpenAI,2,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,696,Opinon Poll,1,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,181,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,24,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,2,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,6,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,14,Philippines,19,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,4,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,53,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,6,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,18,Private Equity,2,Private Military Contractors,2,Privatization,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,13,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publications,1,Publishing,7,Purchasing Managers' Index,1,Putin,7,Q&A,1,Qatar,114,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,4,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,9,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RBI,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,6,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,5,Referendum,5,Reforms,18,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,2,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,18,Report,4,Reports,50,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,2,Research,5,Research and Development,25,Restructuring,1,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Rice,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,318,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,6,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,130,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,396,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,3,Securities,2,Security,6,Semiconductor,20,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,5,Serbia,4,Services Sector,1,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,11,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,5,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,17,Situational Awareness,20,Small Modular Nuclear Reactors,1,Smart Cities,7,Smartphones,1,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,16,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,48,South Asia,474,South China Sea,36,South East Asia,77,South Korea,63,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,9,Space,46,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Education,1,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,24,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,Statistics,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,23,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,4,Submarine,16,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,48,Surveillance,13,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,6,Syria,112,Taiwan,33,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,3,Taxation,25,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,77,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,11,The Middle East,655,Think Tank,317,Tibet,3,TikTok,2,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,3,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,14,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,20,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,47,Travel and Tourism,15,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,140,UAV,23,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,113,Ukraine War,26,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,2,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,83,United Nations,28,United States,765,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,12,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,18,US Postal Service,1,US Senate,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,22,USV,1,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,19,Venture Capital,4,Vibrant Gujarat,1,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,25,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WeChat,1,WEF,3,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whales,1,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,3,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,14,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,38,World Economy,32,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,28,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
IndraStra Global: Gas Looms Large in Eastern Mediterranean Geopolitics
Gas Looms Large in Eastern Mediterranean Geopolitics
By Ramu C.M., Department of Geopolitics and International Relations, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (Deemed-to-be-University), Karnataka, India
IndraStra Global
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content