B&E | Main Factors Restricting the Development of China’s Service Industry

China’s service industry and commodity structure of trade in services is still relatively behind and urgently needs to improve service capability based upon technological innovations

By Chunling Pan and Jie Lv
The College of Economics and Management, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China

Image Attribute:  A service outsourcing unit at Changsha, China - www.cssourcing.gov.cn

Image Attribute:  A service outsourcing unit at Changsha, China - www.cssourcing.gov.cn

Since early days of reforms, China’s rapid development of its service industry, both service trade import and export volume increased, but, in general, the openness of China’s service trade is not very high, and neither the field is wide. This is because China has long regarded as the global manufacturing powerhouse industry, but does not pay much attention to the development of producer services. Although the introduction of multinational manufacturing practices, services for multinational corporations but often productive service sectors still remain excluded. China’s service industry has been open for business along with manufacturing sector, but the degree of openness is far lower than in manufacturing.

At present, China’s openness to foreign investment service industry is about 7% more than when we join the World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments but much lower than in Western countries in recent years, trade in services sector accounts 10%. As early as in 1999, an openness of the United Kingdom, Korea, Italy, France, reached 12.0%, 11.9%, 11.3% and 10.6%. 

At present, China still has many industries; especially the low degree of openness for modern service industries such as telecommunications, civil aviation, and railway sector (which is still quite heavily monopolized). Monopolization results in poor quality of service and drives market competitiveness at lowest gear, which not only damages the interests of consumers but also hindered the development of the overall industry. In fact,  the growth in China’s service industry can be accelerated by adopting the openness of trade in services which largely depends on a large development. The primary key is to absorb foreign advanced technology, experience and increasing the trade volumes in high value-added services which will eventually add necessary value to China’s service industry.

At present, China’s trade in services management and coordination agency comes under Ministry of Commerce. Trade in services is mainly responsible for strategy and policy formulation, international multilateral negotiations, service utilization of foreign investment policy matters. These service management system requirements have gaps which are mainly as follows:  

1. Lack of a unified trade in services coordination and management departments at the central level. 

2. On trade in services  - local policies and regulations are not uniform

3. The current management of trade in services is still in fragmented state, 

4. Issues related to cross-management of various functions via various intermediaries.

5. Inconsistent with international practices.

Although the current international trade in services showed the general trend of liberalization and globalization, but to protect certain domestic industries and their vulnerable services, countries with a weak international competitiveness of the domestic service market opening tend to impose many restrictions [1]. In the future between the developed and emerging countries in the field of service trade liberalization will aggravate the opposition, the hidden barriers to services trade. This will continue to reflect the trend. 

As a developing country, China’s trade in services, the main advantage lies in tourism, construction, transport and other labor-intensive service sectors. These services require the low-skilled labor as intermediate inputs along with the movement of persons. But in developed countries, the issue of cross-border movement restrictions are more about natural persons providing their services for the commitment in principle, but only with the establishment of commercial organizations providing services linked to a small number of senior management or technical staff mobility provisions of an exceptional commitment to the table, which makes natural persons providing services to a large extent only as “commercial presence” of the supplement, the cross-border flow is also highly dependent on the establishment of foreign business organizations in need. In addition, some, such as immigration restrictions, certification, technical standards, foreign exchange restrictions and other barriers to services trade has become a substantial export of China’s service trade barriers.

Today’s world, service is the labor-intensive to technology-intensive [2], emerging trade in services relative share in total trade expanded. Modern service industry knowledge, technology-intensive industries, requires a large number of professional solid, high-quality technical and management personnel. 

However, the comparative advantage of China’s service industry is labor-intensive services. Service providers only have a general culture of quality which can be enhanced with simple and complex training programs. Currently, China’s service industry does not enough emphasis on the training of professionals, led to the current quality of service sector employees not able to meet required international standards. This kind of situation cannot meet the supply needs of the modern service industry development, undermined China’s international competitiveness in trade in services.

The overall level of development of China’s service trade is not high, especially in the structure left behind. Commodity structure of trade in services from the point of view, exports are concentrated in tourism, transportation, etc. can take advantage of our relatively abundant natural and labor resources of the traditional service projects, in 2009 only two travel services and transportation services accounted for China’s service trade exports of 57.36% and 58.72% of imports, although both compared with 2008 share of exports or imports have decreased, but still accounted for China’s service trade exports and imports in half. 

In contrast, in the capital, technology, management experience, a high dependence on services, such as computer and information services, financial services, consulting services, patent services, advertising and promotional services, new services, import and export accounted for China’s service import and export trade, especially exports, the proportion is still small. This shows that China’s service trade development is in serious imbalance. While this structure in the short term will favor China’s economic growth and employment problem, but in the long run, China’s service industry and service trade development will rather dive into negative.

In the new service industry sector, the Chinese share of imports is higher than the proportion of exports. This shows with the upgrading of China’s industrial structure continues to accelerate the pace of China’s emerging services for foreign products, particularly in the production of services, increasing the demand for those products, it also shows the development level of China’s service industry and commodity structure of trade in services is still relatively behind and urgently needs to improve service capability based upon technological innovations, eventually speeding up the industrial upgrading of China’s service industry. 

Finally, a particular note is the emerging service sector cannot support the protection just for the name. China should encourage high-tech service industry to actively participate in international competition in the international market for development, rather than inward looking, blindly seeking government protection. If such practices continue, we will always lag behind the developed countries, and China’s service industry structure will not arise to the point where it aspires to be in near future. 

References:

[1] D. Acemoglu and V. Guerrieri, “Capital Deepening and Non-Balanced Economic Growth,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 116, No. 3, 2008, pp. 467-498. doi:10.1086/589523 

[2] Z. Griliches, “Output Measurement in the Service Sectors,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume 56, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1992. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226308890.001.0001


Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,8,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,83,Africa,109,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,64,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,44,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,124,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,58,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,20,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,10,Book Review,17,Border Conflicts,7,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1004,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,6,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,74,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,46,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,455,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,15,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,40,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,80,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,4,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,80,COVID,5,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,12,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,104,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,11,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,8,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,2,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,39,Economy,76,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,61,Egypt,24,Elections,29,Electric Vehicle,11,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,309,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,24,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,46,ePayments,12,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,3,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,6,European Union,219,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,3,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1151,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,17,Financial Markets,49,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,12,Fishery,3,Food Security,22,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,2,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,16,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,9,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,60,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,2,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,126,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,68,Immigration,17,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,536,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,24,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,3,Indonesia,17,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,6,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,188,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,119,IT ITeS,131,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,61,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,LGBTQ,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,13,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,8,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,39,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,10,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,9,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,51,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,25,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,13,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,30,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,29,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,19,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,44,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,5,News,1055,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,22,North America,41,North Korea,48,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,38,Nuclear Agreement,30,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,44,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,346,Oil Gas,6,Oil Price,56,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,122,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,611,Pacific,5,Pakistan,159,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,7,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,101,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,13,Reports,38,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,20,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,269,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,122,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,335,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,3,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,13,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,405,South China Sea,31,South East Asia,61,South Korea,42,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,40,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,22,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,18,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,37,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,16,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,20,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,23,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,22,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,74,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,7,The Middle East,606,Think Tank,290,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,7,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,132,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,94,Ukraine War,7,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,69,United Nations,27,United States,654,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,19,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,12,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,27,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: B&E | Main Factors Restricting the Development of China’s Service Industry
B&E | Main Factors Restricting the Development of China’s Service Industry
China’s service industry and commodity structure of trade in services is still relatively behind and urgently needs to improve service capability based upon technological innovations
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-L95IFTHlQes/V0uv3-y6yBI/AAAAAAAAKj8/uv-v0pMBCLM1shw61JwDrK-8eH1JBDBvwCLcB/s640/3cb894d20b134e66b6af8640891ad79b.jpg
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-L95IFTHlQes/V0uv3-y6yBI/AAAAAAAAKj8/uv-v0pMBCLM1shw61JwDrK-8eH1JBDBvwCLcB/s72-c/3cb894d20b134e66b6af8640891ad79b.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/05/BE-Main-Factors-Restricting-the-Development-of-China-s-Service-Industry-002-05-2016-0027.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/05/BE-Main-Factors-Restricting-the-Development-of-China-s-Service-Industry-002-05-2016-0027.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content