THE PAPER | Russia & EU : Asymmetric Inter-dependence?

Apart from the issue of human rights and rule of law, energy relations with Russia give EU’s leaders the biggest headaches. This state of fact is rooted in the importance of the ”mighty energy sector” for Russian internal and external policy.


Image Attribute:  Bilfinger SE, Creative commons (CC-BY ND2.0)

Image Attribute:  Bilfinger SE, Creative commons (CC-BY ND2.0)


Apart from the issue of human rights and rule of law, energy relations with Russia give EU’s leaders the biggest headaches. This state of fact is rooted in the importance of the ”mighty energy sector” for Russian internal and external policy. For Moscow the revenues from oil and gas industry ensures the stability of political regime and represents the main instrument of its geopolitical influence. The "energy diplomacy" emerged since the first Putin’s presidential term and dominates the EU-Russia relations.

As a basic feature, the EU-Russian energy relations are characterized by a strong mutual dependence. Russia is the EU’s biggest energy supplier and the EU is Russia’s biggest trading partner. However, even the Kremlin has been trying to increase Europe’s dependence on its energy, Russia needs the EU more than Brussels needs Moscow. While some member states are unduly dependent on Russian energy, and a few alarmingly so (ex. Finland, the Baltic states, Bulgaria), the EU as a whole does not suffer from excessive dependency upon Russia. The Russian fuels exported to the EU represent over three quarters of all its exports, for the EU, though, these constitute a bit less than one third of its total energy imports needs. In these conditions, the EU would be able to withstand any interruption in imports of crude oil or natural gas from Russia because the EU’s energy consumption can be replaced by other energy sources (nuclear, renewable, liquefied gas) and suppliers (increased imports of Norwegian, Middle East, Nigerian gas or increased imports of Saudi oil). Russia’s position would be more vulnerable if the EU reduced its purchases of Russian oil and gas. In this scenario, Russia would be threatened with financial collapse due to its inability to replace lost revenue . This mutual dependence between Russia and Europe has meant that Russia’s energy weapon has, in actuality, turned out to be less potent that some in the Kremlin may have hoped and that many Europeans feared.

There is no doubt that the January 2009 Ukrainian gas crisis, Russia’s withdrawal from the Energy Treaty, the Arab revolts in North Africa, and the Japanese earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident, which called into question the reliability of nuclear energy, put pressure on the security of European energy, however, the EU is trying to overcome these challenges. Thus, in order to reduce its import vulnerability, in November 2010, the European Commission adopted the ten-year Energy plan entitled, Energy 2020: A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. The Commission’s objectives for 2020 are to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% and to make a 20% improvement in energy efficiency. As the large EU members of Western Europe are less dependent on Russian imports, while the countries of Eastern and Central Europe have fewer alternatives and are from 70 to 99% dependent on gas and oil imports from Russia, the strategy involves the obligation of solidarity among member states, internal infrastructure and interconnections across external borders and maritime areas. This way, the gas could circulate in case of crisis, in order to be able to be transferred from one country to another. The EU will put an important accent on the modernization of the existing infrastructure, with specific emphasis on the Southern corridor, in particular Nabucco and ITGI. Europe has also found different sources of energy in Qatar and even in the USA, countries which could export liquefied gas. In January 2011, the EU and Azerbaijan signed an agreement on natural gas supplies, which commits Azerbaijan to selling ”substantial volumes of gas over the long term” to the EU. The agreement represents the first firm commitment from a Caspian Basin country to provide gas for the EU’s Southern Corridor.

Moscow perceives this EU policy as a threat to its energy security and has reacted defensively. The termination of Russia’s provisional application of the Energy Charter Treaty came two weeks after the signing of the Nabucco Intergovernmental Agreement. (Moscow is afraid of losing its gas transportation monopoly and the ratification would have undercut Gazprom’s position on the European market by forcing Russia to open up its network to cheaper gas from Central Asia.) A week after the signing of the EU-Azerbaijan agreement on the Southern Corridor, Gazprom announced that it would increase the amount of gas it purchases from Azerbaijan, in order to make the European project nonviable because of lack of sufficient hydrocarbons reserves. Russia has been also trying to diversify its energy exports and reduce its dependence on the European Union by opening an Asian route to Chinese, Korean and Japanese markets. Gazprom is trying to sell gas to China, but the negotiations on exports have been taking place for several years without success so far. Thus, Russia remains dependent on the EU. On one hand, the gas is usually transported through pipelines and Russian transport infrastructure is oriented towards Europe, exporting to new markets requiring expensive new pipelines and advance planning, and on the other hand, the EU is the most lucrative market for Russia (Gazprom gets nearly 70% of its profits from sales to the EU)3 . Moreover, Russia encounters further problems with regard to the Chinese market. The communist neighbors are not willing to pay as much as are paying the Europeans for Russian gas and oil, and the demographic discrepancies between ratified Siberia and crowded China are not at all comfortable for Russian leaders. ”Vladivostok is already a Chinese city, both economically and culturally. The Chinese make up more than half the population of Khabarovsk”4 . Russia now seems understandably to be more preoccupied with the exposure of the thinly populated Far East to the rising power of China. Beijing’s growing involvement in Central Asia (including the launch of a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to China via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan) and Turkmenistan’s thriving cooperation with Iran, have seriously limited Gazprom’s ability to have Central Asian gas at its disposal. Furthermore, Moscow fears being marginalized in a world where power and wealth oscillate between Asia and the Pacific and needs powerful allies as a counter-balance to Chinese power. Thus, at least in the medium term, Russia is ”condemned” to be EU’s partner in the energy field.

The asymmetric inter-dependency is more obvious in trade area. The EU is the most important Russian commercial partner, while Russia is ranked third among the EU’s trading partners, after the USA and China. More than half of Russia’s trade is conducted with EU states, and 75% of foreign direct investments in Russia come from the EU. On the other side, the EU’s exports to Russia represent up to 6% of its total value exports, while its imports from Russia are around 10%. It is obvious that Russia is dependent on the EU and not vice versa. And this dependency on trade, especially energy trade with the EU will increase, given the new and future projects (Nord Stream – to Germany and South Stream to the Balkans). Russia has sought to enhance its leverage over Europe through the construction of new pipelines and to direct the asymmetric interdependence to its advantage, that is to make Europe more dependent on Russia than Russia is on the EU, however, these pipelines not only increase the sheer quantity of oil and gas Russia can export to Europe, but also increase Russia’s dependency on European market.

The Russian economy is considerably dependent on the EU economy for its export, of which 60% goes to the EU. In the hypothetical case where trade between the EU and Russia would come to a complete standstill, Russian economy would simply collapse. On the other side, the European Union is the largest single market in the world, which gives the EU and especially to the European Commission some leverage on Russia. Brussels should not be intimidated by Russia’s ”energy diplomacy” when negotiating, in fact the Kremlin recognized its need to be part of the market economies club by becoming member of the World Trade Organization, and now has to comply with the international rules.

Cite this Article:

Empfohlene Zitierung / Suggested Citation: Rotaru, Vasile: Between interdependence and strategic interests: EU-Russia relations after the Georgian war. In: Studia Politica : Romanian Political Science Review 12 (2012), 3, pp. 472-474. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/ urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-445994

Download the Paper - LINK

This document is made available under a CC BY-NC-ND Licence (Attribution Non Comercial-NoDerivatives) by the original publisher.
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,6,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,11,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,1,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,81,Africa,108,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,3,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,3,Al Shabab,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,11,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,63,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,43,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,123,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,57,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,29,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,19,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,10,Book Review,17,Border Conflicts,5,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,968,C-UAS,1,California,4,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,5,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,73,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,45,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,439,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,13,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,39,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,78,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,3,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,79,COVID,4,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,7,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,11,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,103,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,10,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,6,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,1,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,38,Economy,65,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,60,Egypt,23,Elections,28,Electric Vehicle,10,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,306,Energy Policy,27,Energy Politics,23,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,45,ePayments,10,Epidemic,5,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,2,Eurasia,3,Euro,5,Europe,5,European Union,214,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,3,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1103,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,16,Financial Markets,47,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,11,Fishery,3,Food Security,22,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,1,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,9,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,7,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,56,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,1,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,124,Greece,12,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,66,Immigration,16,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,527,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,22,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,2,Indonesia,16,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,4,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,31,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,184,Iraq,52,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,117,IT ITeS,129,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,56,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,6,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,12,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,1,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,7,Mali,5,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,37,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,8,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,8,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,51,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,24,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,12,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,29,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,28,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,17,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,42,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,Negotiations,1,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,4,New Zealand,5,News,1007,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,21,North America,37,North Korea,48,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,37,Nuclear Agreement,29,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,43,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,329,Oil Gas,5,Oil Price,50,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,113,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,609,Pacific,5,Pakistan,155,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,7,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,4,Protests,7,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,96,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,2,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,1,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,1,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,13,Reports,35,Repository,1,Republicans,2,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,19,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,258,Russian Navy,4,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,121,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,329,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,2,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,11,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,397,South China Sea,30,South East Asia,58,South Korea,41,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,38,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,20,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,15,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,37,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,14,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,16,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,15,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,22,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,21,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,73,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,6,The Middle East,601,Think Tank,285,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,4,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,1,UAE,130,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,90,Ukraine War,4,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,67,United Nations,27,United States,626,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,18,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,11,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,17,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,26,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Xi Jinping,8,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: THE PAPER | Russia & EU : Asymmetric Inter-dependence?
THE PAPER | Russia & EU : Asymmetric Inter-dependence?
Apart from the issue of human rights and rule of law, energy relations with Russia give EU’s leaders the biggest headaches. This state of fact is rooted in the importance of the ”mighty energy sector” for Russian internal and external policy.
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-329eAn6w5WI/Vww7Ouel1jI/AAAAAAAAJ58/SXcxcjcsbKwaA4egIHmsPCmAXtoBAYmUwCLcB/s640/Gas_hub.jpg
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-329eAn6w5WI/Vww7Ouel1jI/AAAAAAAAJ58/SXcxcjcsbKwaA4egIHmsPCmAXtoBAYmUwCLcB/s72-c/Gas_hub.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/04/PAPER-Russia-and-EU-Asymmetric-Interdependence-002-04-2016-0032.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/04/PAPER-Russia-and-EU-Asymmetric-Interdependence-002-04-2016-0032.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content