B&E | Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on Taxation
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B&E | Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on Taxation

By Lexi Lentz

B&E | Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization on Taxation

Image Attribute: Stevepb / Pixabay, Creative Commons

Having a free open economy is essential to maintaining a strong national economy in a globalized world. There are many positive and negative consequences of living in a globalized world. For example, globalization creates amplified tax competition between the countries. This competition may be seen as both positive and negative. Furthermore, the impact that globalization has on taxation creates both advantages and disadvantages throughout the nations.

Globalization creates positive impacts on taxation throughout the nations. One of the most obvious advantages is that businesses or individuals have the ability to carry on operations in countries outside of its country of residence. Businesses look to transfer their production of businesses in order to generate their products at a lower cost or enable them to be taxed at a lower rate. For this reason, tax havens are developed in countries worldwide. Tax havens are considered "territories where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all" (Tax). These tax havens allow businesses to take advantage of the lower tax rates in other countries, creating tax incentives for countries to move their developing businesses there. These tax havens also give incentive for the everyday person to live there. Many businesses or individuals may be hesitant, however, to operate its businesses in other countries due to being taxed by both the country of residence and the country that the business arises. However, in order to promote globalizing businesses and avoid double taxation, countries enter into double taxation agreements. For example the Double Taxation Agreement between Australia and the United States "facilitated trade and investment and improved efficiency in capital markets and capital movements" (Impact). If some countries are not in double taxation agreements, they may look forward to other promising tax incentives, such as tax holidays. Tax holidays are considered one of the most popular tax incentives among developing countries because these holidays allow exemptions from paying taxes for a certain period of time (Tanzi). Tax havens, Double taxation agreements, and tax holidays may all be considered advantageous to globalizing countries.

Globalization also brings about negative impacts in dealing with taxation. Even though it is beneficial for individuals and businesses to take their productions and operations elsewhere, it hurts the countries that these businesses and individuals reside. For instance, tax havens were seen as a positive effect for globalizing businesses because operators of these businesses were able to receive these levied taxes at a lower rate. On the contrary, tax havens have a lingering effect on the residing countries of these business owners and individuals. The tax havens create downfall to these countries because they take tax revenues away from these home countries. For instance in 2011, a "Stop Tax Haven Abuse Act" was introduced and stated that "companies should pay U.S. taxes if operations are managed domestically, regardless of whether they are incorporated in other countries or not" (Kim). There is a constant battle between the necessity for tax havens and the burden that tax havens cause to their home countries. Not only are tax havens an issue in globalizing businesses, but also tax holidays are seen to have a negative effect. Tax holidays are claimed to "increase domestic investment by freeing multinationals from cash restraints" (Kim). However, a report by Sussana Kim claims that "future tax holidays will make firms more inclined to shift income into tax havens and less likely to reinvest earnings in the U.S." (Kim). Furthermore, these tax holidays are causing businesses to continue investing into tax havens rather than keeping their income in their residing country.
Furthermore, globalization is an essential economic concept that is needed in order to maintain a strong economy.  When dealing with taxation, globalization has many positive and negative effects. For instance, businesses and individuals look to tax havens as a positive way to receive lower tax rates or no taxes. Double taxation agreements are made in order to avoid a tax in both the country the business arises and the country the business resides from. Also, tax holidays give a period of time in which countries are exempt from paying taxes. However, the negative repercussions of tax havens are that the residing countries of these businesses experience a loss of potential revenues. Tax holidays also anger many residential countries of businesses because they are causing more businesses and individuals to invest into tax havens and not reinvesting in their residing country. Therefore, globalization brings about the advantages and disadvantages on taxation, and will continue to be a key concept in any globalized economy.    
Works Cited
"Impact of Globalisation on Tax Administration." Impact of Globalisation on Tax Administration. Australian Taxation Office for the Commonwealth of Australia, 26 Sept. 2006. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.
KIM, SUSANNA. "Sen. Levin Says Tackling Tax Haven Abuse Is One Way to Reduce Deficit."ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 July 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.
Tanzi, Vito, and Howell Zee. "Tax Policy for Developing Countries." Economic Issues No. 27 -- Tax Policy for Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012.
"Tax Haven." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Nov. 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2012.