OPINION | Pathankot Air Base Attack: India Urgently Needs a Hybrid Border Surveillance System

The latest “fidayeen” terror strike on the front line Indian Air Force base at Pathankot early on Saturday, Jan 02, 2015 is the second major “Cross-Border Infiltration-cum-Attack” to take place in Indian Punjab’s Gurdaspur-Pathankot belt in the last six months. In this analysis, we will focus on possible deployment of a "Hybrid Combination of Wireless Sensor Network" integrated with "Quick Reaction Team’s Operation Base" and try to decode the possible infiltration routes of Pathankot Air Base Attack, which could have been stopped from happening at the first place itself.

By IndraStra Global Editorial Team


The latest “fidayeen” terror strike on the front line Indian Air Force base at Pathankot early on Saturday early morning (Jan 02, 2016) is the second major “Cross-Border Infiltration-cum-Attack” to take place in Indian Punjab’s Gurdaspur-Pathankot belt in the last six months.

 Image Attribute: An Indian Border Security Force (BSF) soldier patrols near the fenced border with Pakistan amid fog in Suchetgarh, southwest of Jammu, Jan 10, 2013. / Source: Dawn.com

Image Attribute: An Indian Border Security Force (BSF) soldier patrols near the fenced border with Pakistan amid fog in Suchetgarh, southwest of Jammu, Jan 10, 2013. / Source: Dawn.com

Though a large portion of the India-Pakistan border on the 553-km Gurdaspur-Jammu sector is fenced, there are several gaps caused by the Ravi river and season rivulets that cut into the international boundary. Former General V.K Singh has clearly mentioned in is his book “Courage and Conviction” about the Basantar-Devak River which is the most vulnerable stretch of Indo-Pakistan Border, situated within the proximity of Samba, roughly between Mammun and Pathankot. It’s easy to infiltrate from this stretch as compared to the heavily-mined and guarded Line of Control as well as the international border in neighboring Jammu and Kashmir state. 

Currently, the Gurdaspur-Pathankot-Samba sector is complying with "Ditch-cum-Bunker / Ditch-cum-Bund" defence concept. Jointly manned by Indian Army and Border Security Force (BSF), the whole system consists of Liner defence elements, built to create tactical obstacles in a terrain which was all flat ground [1]. These defences, combined with the existing natural ground features make large-scale mechanized operations virtually impossible.

The primary objective to have such system at place to impose time penalty on any ground attacking force including tanks and armored vehicles. However, the system itself doesn't provide a fool-proof border security. However, in case of an emergency; this kind of system will affect defending army’s operations and pose hurdles for their forward movement.


Since couple of years, India was trying to formulate a high-octane "Border Space Command Plan" which primarily includes the construction of more than 500 border posts along the frontiers with Pakistan and Bangladesh. The government also intend to purchase electronic surveillance equipment, such as night-vision devices, hand-held  IR thermal imagery devices, battlefield surveillance radars, direction finders, unattended ground sensors and high-powered telescopes.

Currently, India's border management system is excessively manpower intensive and mainly uses fences along with unattended ground sensors across the sections of the 15,000-kilometer border. However, the fences are not foolproof, and the sensors have not responded on several occasions, said a source in the border paramilitary force.

On October 2015, Indian Army has objected to the government’s plan to build an embankment along the 179-km stretch of the International Border in Jammu district [2]. The plan to build the another embankment (better known as ditch-cum-bund) was cleared in 2013 by the then UPA government after the twin terror attacks in Hiranagar/Samba sector the same year, and around 20 per cent of the required land has been acquired for the project. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) is implementing the project and the embankment will be constructed under the supervision of the Border Security Force (BSF). The Army already mans another embankment, a few kilometers behind the international border. Their main contention is that if at all there is a war-like situation, they will not be able to handle the situation. It is the BSF that is deployed on this 179-km-long stretch, and the Army provides back-up in an emergency.

Need for Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network
Multimedia, Ground, Mobile, and Underground Sensors for Effective Border Patrol.

One of the key advantages of deploying an integrated wireless sensor networks (WSN) is their ability to bridge the gap between the physical and logical worlds, by gathering certain useful information from the physical world and communicating that information to more powerful logical devices that can process it. WSN will eventually eliminate the need for human intervention in many information gathering and monitoring applications, especially in confined or dangerous spaces.

The low-cost and small size features of WSN will enable the deployment of hundreds of nodes in any field of interest. Such huge density allows more dense collection of data in spatial and temporal domains. Sensor nodes contains of three main parts:

1) Processing unit;
2) RF transceiver; and
3) Energy source.

Multiple sensor nodes self-form themselves to form a network to exchange information and deliver data to a common node called the sink node. 



Figure 1.  FleGSens - Hybrid combination of multimedia, ground, mobile, 
and underground sensors for border patrol.


FleGSens is a wireless sensor network for the surveillance of critical areas [3], funded by the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI). The FleGSens application provides several protocols that ensure the secure detection of trespassers even if an attacker compromises a limited number of sensor nodes. Protocol performance was investigated first by an extensive set of simulations in different scenarios and then by application in a test bed. 

In general, the results of the simulations and the real-world experiments closely resemble each other. The trespass detection protocol shows the location of all trespassers independent of their paths as soon as the duty cycle allows for sending messages. The node failure detection protocol assures that all nodes monitor a subset of neighbours and detects all node failures once the threshold of missed messages is exceeded. The parameters are adjustable to the requirements of the application to achieve lower detection durations, lower false positive rates and support the use of duty cycling. Attacks are either detected by non-compromised nodes or they have no effect on the employed protocols.

Eventually, Providing a full coverage while minimizing the cost has been an active area of research in the operational research field. In order to reduce coverage overlap between sensors, optimization methods should be used to select the best placement of the sensor nodes in the field [4-6]. J. He and H. Shi [7] developed a distributed algorithm to optimize the location of sensor nodes along a barrier to minimize the cost of the full coverage. In [8], the authors examined how to reposition a mobile sensor network efficiently within a specified region to recover a security hole and prevent intruders from exploiting this hole. Yang and Qiao proposed a multi-round approach to deploy sensor nodes to guarantee barrier coverage [9].


Conclusion:

Managing the border is important for not only maintaining the security of the India, but also reducing the workload of the Indian Army, which is fighting a low-intensity war with terrorists and insurgents across all the fonts. In such scenario, a Hybrid Combination of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can be an optimum solution with two of the promising application includes border surveillance and intrusion detection applications. The main advantage of using WSN in such applications is the high spatial and temporal data resolution results from deploying hundreds of low-cost networked sensor nodes along borders. The importance of providing integrity and security service for the border monitoring network has been firstly introduced in [11]. However, more research should be done to tackle many issues, such as providing security for different topologies and different kinds of sensor networks.

AIDN0020120160004/ INDRASTRA / ISSN 2381-3652
References:

[1] General V.K Singh “Courage and Conviction”

[2] The Hindu, October 7, 2015 “Army opposes Home Ministry’s border embankment plan”

[3] Peter Rothenpieler, Daniela Kruger, Dennis Pfisterer, Stefan Fischer “FleGSens — Secure Area Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:3, No:8, 2009 

[4] Luo, et al., “Ship Detection with Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2012, pp. 1336-1343.doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.274

[5] A. Mishra, K. Sudan and H. Soliman, “Detecting Border Intrusion Using Wireless Sensor Network and Artificial Neural Network,” IEEE DCOSS 2010, Santa Barbara, 21- 23 June 2010.

[6] P. Rothenpieler, D. Kruger, D. Pfisterer, S. Fischer, D. Dudek, C. Haas, A. Kuntz and M. Zitterbart, “Flegsens: Secure Area Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 4th Safety and Security Systems in Europe, 2009.

[7] J. He, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi and N. Peyghambarian, “Solar-Powered Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Network for Border Surveillance,” SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, 2012.

[8] J. He and H. Shi, “Constructing Sensor Barriers with Minimum Cost in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Journal of Parallel Distributed Computing, Vol. 72, No. 12, 2012, pp. 1654-1663. doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2012.07.004

[9] G. Yang and D. Qiao “Multi-Round Sensor Deployment for Guranteed Barrier Coverage,” IEEE INFOCOM 2010.

[10] E. Felemban, S. Vural, et al., “SAMAC: A Cross-Layer Communication Protocol for Sensor Networks with Sectored Antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 9, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1072-1088. doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.61
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,8,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,19,Activism,1,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,30,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,34,Aerospace,4,Afghanistan,83,Africa,108,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,15,Air Crash,9,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,5,Air Force,26,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,4,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,1,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,1,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,1,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,26,Army,3,Art,1,Artificial Intelligence,62,Arunachal Pradesh,1,ASEAN,10,Asia,64,Asia Pacific,22,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,43,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,124,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,58,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,14,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,1,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,1,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,1,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,9,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,13,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,2,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,2,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,31,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,20,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,10,Book Review,17,Border Conflicts,7,Border Control and Surveillance,5,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,99,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,16,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,2,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1004,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,6,Cameroon,1,Canada,46,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,8,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,74,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,46,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,1,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,455,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,1,Civil Liberties,4,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,4,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,4,Climate,62,Climate Change,15,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,40,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,3,Communication,8,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Conferences,1,Conflict,80,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,1,COP26,4,Coronavirus,106,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,13,Counter Terrorism,80,COVID,5,COVID Vaccine,5,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,12,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,4,Currency,6,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,104,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,35,Data Science,2,Database,2,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,11,Decision Support System,5,Defense,9,Defense Deals,5,Deforestation,2,Democracy,20,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,38,Digital Economy,8,Digital Marketing,2,Digital Transformation,10,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,42,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,10,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,2,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,1,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,1,Economic Justice,1,Economics,39,Economy,76,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Education,61,Egypt,24,Elections,29,Electric Vehicle,11,Electricity,5,Electronics,7,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,12,Energy,309,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,24,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,46,ePayments,12,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,3,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,6,European Union,219,EuroZone,5,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,3,F-35,5,Facebook,7,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1150,Fidel Castro,1,Fiji,1,Finance,17,Financial Markets,49,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,13,Fiscal Policy,12,Fishery,3,Food Security,22,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,2,France,26,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,6,G24,1,G7,3,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,16,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,9,GDPR,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Geo Politics,103,Geography,1,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,60,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Trade,88,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,2,Gold,2,Google,13,Gorkhaland,1,Government,125,GPS,1,Greater Asia,126,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,11,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,28,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,4,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,2,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMF,68,Immigration,17,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,536,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,24,Indian Ocean,16,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,3,Indonesia,17,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,6,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,7,Internet,52,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,IPO,4,Iran,188,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,1,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,119,IT ITeS,131,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,61,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,3,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,22,Kenya,5,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,3,Kosovo,2,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,2,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,9,LGBTQ,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,13,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,10,Maldives,8,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,39,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,9,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,15,Meta,1,Metadata,2,Metals,1,Mexico,10,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,11,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,99,Military Exercise,9,Military-Industrial Complex,1,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,51,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,10,Mobility,4,Modi,7,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,5,Money Market,2,Mongolia,8,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,1,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,25,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,NASA,13,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,30,Natural Disasters,10,Natural Gas,29,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,19,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,44,Navigation,2,Navy,21,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,6,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,5,News,1055,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,22,North America,41,North Korea,48,Norway,2,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,38,Nuclear Agreement,30,Nuclear Doctrine,1,Nuclear Security,44,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,346,Oil Gas,6,Oil Price,56,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,122,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,611,Pacific,5,Pakistan,159,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,11,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,7,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,7,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,36,Polynesia,3,Population,3,Portugal,1,Poverty,5,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,4,Q&A,1,Qatar,101,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,1,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,7,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,1,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,13,Reports,37,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,4,Research and Development,20,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,4,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,268,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,12,Saudi Arabia,122,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,335,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,1,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,3,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,3,Serbia,4,Seychelles,1,SEZ,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,5,Shutdown,1,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,13,Situational Awareness,16,Smart Cities,7,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,39,Social Science,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,11,Somalia,5,South Africa,18,South America,45,South Asia,405,South China Sea,31,South East Asia,61,South Korea,42,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,40,Space Station,2,Spain,8,Special Forces,1,Sports,2,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,22,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,18,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,37,Surveillance,8,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,16,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,3,Switzerland,3,Syria,111,Taiwan,20,Tajikistan,11,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Taxation,23,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,22,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,74,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,7,The Middle East,606,Think Tank,288,Tibet,2,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,9,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,16,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,39,Travel and Tourism,6,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,73,Turkmenistan,9,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,132,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,93,Ukraine War,7,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,6,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,69,United Nations,27,United States,654,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,8,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,15,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,19,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,12,Valuation,1,Vatican,1,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,3,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,18,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,16,Water Politics,6,Weapons,10,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,2,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,10,Workshop,1,World Bank,27,World Economy,24,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,1,Yemen,26,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: OPINION | Pathankot Air Base Attack: India Urgently Needs a Hybrid Border Surveillance System
OPINION | Pathankot Air Base Attack: India Urgently Needs a Hybrid Border Surveillance System
The latest “fidayeen” terror strike on the front line Indian Air Force base at Pathankot early on Saturday, Jan 02, 2015 is the second major “Cross-Border Infiltration-cum-Attack” to take place in Indian Punjab’s Gurdaspur-Pathankot belt in the last six months. In this analysis, we will focus on possible deployment of a "Hybrid Combination of Wireless Sensor Network" integrated with "Quick Reaction Team’s Operation Base" and try to decode the possible infiltration routes of Pathankot Air Base Attack, which could have been stopped from happening at the first place itself.
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-44GUkDQx_5M/Voe8FsgHIZI/AAAAAAAAHZQ/PaUta0iT_EY/s640/JAN2016.jpg
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-44GUkDQx_5M/Voe8FsgHIZI/AAAAAAAAHZQ/PaUta0iT_EY/s72-c/JAN2016.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/01/OPINION-Pathankot-Air-Base-Attack-Need-for-Hybrid-WSN-002-01-2016-0004.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2016/01/OPINION-Pathankot-Air-Base-Attack-Need-for-Hybrid-WSN-002-01-2016-0004.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content