OPINION | How can Modi's Government fund Indian Smart Cities by K. Yatish Rajawat

By K. Yatish Rajawat Prime minister  Narendra Modi 's poll promise to set up 100 smart cities across the country is still on the...


By K. Yatish Rajawat
Prime minister Narendra Modi's poll promise to set up 100 smart cities across the country is still on the drawing board, though the ministry of urban development is expected to give the final touches and announce a plan this month.
Informed sources suggest there are some issues the ministry is still struggling with, one of them being a bureaucracy that has still not got its arms around the grandiose scheme.
Two more interesting details have trickled out about the plan: for one, most of the smart cities will be brownfield development. In other words, they are not going to be new ones but rejuvenation of existing cities. And secondly, there are plans to rejuvenate infrastructure in 500 cities.
The name for the mission is another one that is still being worked out. It is likely to be one from the pantheon of thinkers that the RSS and core think tank of the BJP want to propagate, sources say.
Names aside, the crucial question is the funding urban rejuvenation with the ministry of finance not allocating funds for the project. As it is going to be a multi-year mission, the allocation has to be done annually.
While the corporate lobby is looking for a public-private partnership (PPP) model that could help it get a play, the government should tread this path carefully. PPP should not be the only option.
One way out could be for the ministry to create an institutional mechanism for funding urban infrastructure. A development financial institution -- something like an urban infrastructure investment corporation -- capable of raising funds from international markets, including sovereign funds, pension funds and even wealthy family offices, needs to be created with initial funding from the Indian government and the New Development Bank set up by the BRIC nations.
Cities are not yet capable of raising funds via bonds on their own as there is nobody to guarantee counter-party risk. An urban infrastructure investment corporation assumes significance in this context as it can help cities to raise long-term funding from investors like pension funds and sovereign wealth funds.
The corporation should be an independent institution with a professional CEO capable of selling the opportunity of funding India’s urban infrastructure opportunity. It can even assume the counter-party risk of the PPP.
Problem with depending on the PPP model to fund investment in urban infrastructure is manifold. First, the PPP modal faces opposition not only from political parties but even from people. Once companies are shareholders in the project what they are more concerned about is not the quality of services but their own profits. Secondly, city-based projects given out in the PPP mode face natural opposition as charges on citizens go up.
The reason for this is that the Indian polity is yet to understand the principle of advocating higher charges for better services without attracting the ire of voters. Political parties like the Aam Aadmi Party and others are only waiting to leverage on such issues though the strategy is not always in the long-term interest of development.
The AAP has promised free water and free power in Delhi and has posited itself against corporates providing these services. This strategy endears the AAP to the common man, and this is likely to become the norm. Therefore, shareholding and ownership of urban projects where citizens will be directly affected will face a lot of political opposition in the coming times.
Moreover, it is a myth that public services are better developed by the private sector. Several research and experience in other countries have shown that private sector companies may execute a project quickly if they get financial incentives but they may not be the best entities for delivering services. Government public services organisations may not have the spit and polish of the private sector but they invest and are more dedicated.
Oxfam International in a paper last year had pointed out that while the private sector is important it cannot be the primary driver of development of infrastructure. While Oxfam can be anti-corporate in its stance there is more than a grain of truth in it. The failure and cancellation of some of the toll roads in the country can be a case in point.
It is to be noted that some of these roads built under the PPP model, particularly those in cities, have not fared well. That is why they are being cancelled by state governments.
Another issue with the model is the conflict interest in the role of the government, which is the policy maker, regulator, operator and even arbitrator all rolled into one. What makes matters worse is the private sector riding rough shod over users, by raising toll charges at will, not making any incremental investments after the initial ones and ignoring a large section of the population who are unable to pay the toll.
When it comes to urban services other than toll roads, there is another problem. People, who are not willing to pay toll, can avoid a road by taking an alternative route. But urban services like water or electricity are not so. These are natural monopolies. And monopolies are not healthy whether they are in the public or private space.
True, the private sector can build infrastructure better than the public sector; but for public services that cover various income segments, they are not always capable. In the case of urban infrastructure services like water or sewerage disposal, different income segments are to be covered. All should also be offered the same quality of service.
The learning from toll PPPs is that the private sector cannot handle local conflicts like nearby villagers demanding free access. This kind of problem then builds up on itself and gets political support.
On the whole, PPP is not a solution for all urban services. The model should be used only sparsely and wisely.
This article first appeared in FirstPost on April 21, 2015

Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,9,Abkhazia,2,Academics,10,Accidents,20,Activism,1,Adani Group,4,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,13,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,88,Africa,110,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,19,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,6,Air Force,29,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,5,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,4,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,2,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,3,Artificial Intelligence,80,Artillery,2,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,12,Asia,70,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,54,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,129,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,3,Aviation,63,AWACS,2,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,1,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,28,Banking,52,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,2,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,13,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,19,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,3,Birth,1,BISA,1,Bitcoin,9,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,2,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,3,Bond Market,2,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,7,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,104,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,20,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,4,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1182,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,54,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Cement,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,81,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,47,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,571,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,66,Climate Change,21,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,44,Coal,6,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,106,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,5,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,4,COP26,4,COP28,1,Copper,2,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,16,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,5,Currency,8,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,7,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,115,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,12,Decision Support System,5,Defense,12,Defense Deals,8,Deforestation,2,Democracy,21,Democrats,2,Demographic Studies,1,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,1,Digital Economy,10,Digital Marketing,6,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,14,Diplomatic Row,2,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,2,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,46,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,14,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,3,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,7,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,43,Economy,105,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,44,Education,65,Egypt,27,Elections,37,Electric Vehicle,14,Electricity,7,Electronics,8,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,18,Energy,316,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,24,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,47,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,12,European Union,229,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,6,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1337,Federal Reserve,2,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,57,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Five Eyes,1,Food Security,27,Forces,1,Forecasting,2,Foreign Policy,13,Forex,4,France,33,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,Frigate,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,13,GCC,11,GDP,12,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,7,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,105,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,8,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,9,Geothermal,2,Germany,67,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,95,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,20,Gorkhaland,1,Government,127,GPS,1,Greater Asia,165,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,3,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hamas,10,Hasan,1,Health,8,Healthcare,72,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,12,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,15,Houthi,12,Howitzer,1,Human Development,32,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,6,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,4,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,76,Immigration,19,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,648,India's,1,Indian Air Force,19,Indian Army,7,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,27,Indian Ocean,23,Indices,1,Indigenous rights,1,Indo-Pacific,4,Indonesia,18,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,10,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,4,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,201,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,4,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,141,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,135,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,86,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,JMSDF,1,Joe Biden,6,Joint Strike Fighter,5,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kaspersky,1,Kazakhstan,25,Kenya,5,Khalistan,2,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Korean Conflict,1,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Large language models,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,80,Law,6,Leadership,3,Lebanon,10,Legal,11,LGBTQ,2,Li Keqiang,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Lifestyle,1,Light Battle Tank,1,Linkedin,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,9,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,12,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,15,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,50,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,MediaWiki,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,17,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,3,Mexico,12,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,110,Military Exercise,10,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,6,Missile Systems,56,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,11,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,10,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Mutual Funds,1,Myanmar,30,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Namibia,1,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,2,NASA,13,National Identification Card,1,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,33,Natural Disasters,14,Natural Gas,33,Natural Language Processing,1,Nauru,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,23,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,49,Navigation,2,Navy,23,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Nearshoring,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,7,News,1231,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nikki Haley,1,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,51,North Korea,58,Norway,4,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,40,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Energy,3,Nuclear Fussion,1,Nuclear Propulsion,1,Nuclear Security,47,Nuclear Submarine,1,NYSE,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,5,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,381,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,73,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,OpenAI,2,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,679,Opinon Poll,1,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,179,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,23,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,2,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,6,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,17,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,4,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,51,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,6,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,18,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,2,Privatization,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publications,1,Publishing,7,Purchasing Managers' Index,1,Putin,7,Q&A,1,Qatar,114,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,9,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RBI,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,6,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,4,Referendum,5,Reforms,18,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,2,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,17,Report,2,Reports,45,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,5,Research and Development,24,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Rice,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,308,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,5,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,128,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,391,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,3,Securities,2,Security,6,Semiconductor,17,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,5,Serbia,4,Services Sector,1,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,9,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,5,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,16,Situational Awareness,20,Small Modular Nuclear Reactors,1,Smart Cities,7,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,14,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,46,South Asia,465,South China Sea,35,South East Asia,72,South Korea,56,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,46,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,23,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,23,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,14,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,47,Surveillance,12,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,5,Syria,112,Taiwan,30,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,3,Taxation,25,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,76,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,11,The Middle East,645,Think Tank,314,Tibet,3,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,14,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,19,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,47,Travel and Tourism,13,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,139,UAV,23,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,108,Ukraine War,20,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,81,United Nations,27,United States,741,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,11,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,17,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,21,USV,1,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,19,Venture Capital,4,Vibrant Gujarat,1,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,23,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WeChat,1,WEF,3,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,2,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,11,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,34,World Economy,32,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,27,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: OPINION | How can Modi's Government fund Indian Smart Cities by K. Yatish Rajawat
OPINION | How can Modi's Government fund Indian Smart Cities by K. Yatish Rajawat
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Mr1dPxRtu0o/VYFy1W-ln2I/AAAAAAAABq0/Qn_peGOh23E/s640/TW-INTEL7.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Mr1dPxRtu0o/VYFy1W-ln2I/AAAAAAAABq0/Qn_peGOh23E/s72-c/TW-INTEL7.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2015/06/OPINION-How-can-Modis-Government-Fund-Indian-Smart-Cities-by-K-Yatish-Rajawat.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2015/06/OPINION-How-can-Modis-Government-Fund-Indian-Smart-Cities-by-K-Yatish-Rajawat.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content