Hydrocarbon Resource Rivalry in Israel's Foreign Relations by Shalini Das

By Shalini Das Jadavpur Association of International Relations , Kolkata, INDIA The recent discovery of Hydrocarbon resources at...



By Shalini Das

The recent discovery of Hydrocarbon resources at Tamar & Leviathan Gas Fields (Levant basin) in the Eastern Mediterranean  has brought about serious turmoil and deficit of a concrete internal and external policy by Israel and its neighbors to bring about a positive outcome without exacerbating the existing conflicts.  “Uprisings and violent repression in Syria; the risk of war between Israel and Iran; profound uncertainty in Iraq; the withdrawal from Afghanistan; and incomplete transitions in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Yemen together” (1) would make it difficult for the entire region to protect its internal peace and commercial interests. 



In this circumstance, the Washington involvement in this issue makes the picture a little complicated due to two important factors:  Firstly, Israel’s primary interest of exporting gas to Europe would not seek supply routes via Turkey while encouraging cooperation with Cyprus and Greece.  Secondly, “Israel, Cyprus, and Greece have all courted Russian investment in their energy sectors” (1). However, Washington would never wish the Turkish doors to remain closed while supplying gas to Europe if the politics of Israel permits and at the same time the Russian involvement in the energy sector would not be encouraged which would undermine the European efforts to diversify energy resources. 

Over the years it had been observed that since 2004, the Houston-based Nobel Energy had been controlling 47% of stake in Israel’s offshore Mari-B field that produces gas in the Israeli domestic market. Nobel initial production agreement with Israel suggested a regulated tax frame work until 2010 when the “Israeli Finance Ministry commission recommended raising taxes on energy production to bring them into line with current international practice, recommendations that the government of Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu subsequently endorsed”.(2)  In the light of the above factors, it can be discussed that there is a high possibility for Israel to either collaborate with a European sector or a US-firm, Russia’s Gazprom, Novatek or Chinese National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC) due to the fact that the Israeli companies lack experiences in brining resource into market from offshore, further, “Russia has close ties with Israel, Cyprus and Greece. Around 1 million of Israel’s 7 million citizens are immigrants from the former Soviet Union, including many prominent business people. Moscow views the Republic of Cyprus as an important partner and continues to back it in disputes with the “TRNC” and Turkey” (1)which has created a serious pressure on the US Government.

The second factor mentioned above regarding the Turkish doors have brought about serious concerns for Washington due to the fact that Israel seeks to worsen relations with Turkey which could have been a commercially viable option to set pipelines via Turkey to Europe. However, this option is no longer valid in the current political scenario. Israel has been considering other alternatives including “pipelines or electricity cables to Cyprus and Greece, a liquid natural gas (LNG) plant in Cyprus, an onshore pipeline to Jordan, as well as a floating LNG plant allowing Israel to sell gas in European or Asian markets. Each of these options has its strengths and weaknesses, including security risks”.(3) Another alternative that Washington decides to set up is a pipeline conjoining Cyprus and Greece which could increase the rift between Israel and Turkey. However, the prime motive of USA is not to exacerbate the differences in the region but possibly establish its own control over the commercial issues of the area. In the meanwhile the increasing chances of conflict between Israel and Turkey has made Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu announce that “the Turkish navy would patrol the eastern Mediterranean’s international waters more actively to prevent what he termed Israeli “bullying.”(4) Israel on the other hand has started building its own naval patrols around the Mediterranean gas fields to curb the Turkish threats and the rockets launched from Lebanon by Hezbollah. Further, Israeli military cooperation with Greece and Cyprus have allowed them to sign the search and rescue cooperation in February 2012 to prevent threats in the EEZ of Cyprus. Additional protection measures have been demanded from U.S. based security firms. (1) However, since the discovery of the hydrocarbon resource, the U.S. administration considers that Israel and Cyprus are within their legal rights in prospecting and developing energy resources in their EEZs, Washington is quietly urging them to remain open to Turkey’s involvement in future projects, when political circumstances permit.(5)

The region of Eastern Mediterranean and Southern Europe has become an area of internal conflicts especially with regard to the position of Turkey in the region which happens to be the only Middle Eastern country playing its role in the region. However, the recent developments state that the relations between Israel and Turkey are improving which is being possible through negotiations and talks. However, with regard to Israel, the foreign policy is observed from the position of security interest and internal conflicts between the Palestinians have become a serious issue of concern because of the fact that thousands of rockets fly from the Gaza strip every day into Israel, making the area prone to trouble. Further, the Israeli army is aiming for protection against the Palestinians from the Gaza strip which has become a serious problem for the Israelis due to the fact that she has to supply goods to Gaza to provide assistance to the people in the region because not everybody in Gaza are Palestinians.  Hence, internal problems of Israel is affecting her foreign relations as a result of which both Russia and USA are trying to pave their way into the matters of the Eastern Mediterranean and the way in which Israel should carve out her foreign relations with Turkey.

Further, with the position of Turkey, it is important to note that its position in the region is a prerequisite because of the fact that firstly it is the only Middle Eastern player in the zone and secondly if Turkey tries to alienate itself from the region, there will be less chance of success for the coalition.



0




References:

1. Policy Brief- Resource Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean: The View from Washington by Jeffrey Mankoff, June 2012, p.1

2. State of Israel Ministry of Finance, Summary of Draft Conclusions by the Sheshinski Committee, November 10, 2010, http://www.financeisrael.mof.gov.il/FinanceIsrael/ 
Pages/en/News/20101110.aspx; stated in Policy Brief- Resource Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean: The View from Washington by Jeffrey Mankoff , June 2012, p.2

3.  These options are considered further in the accompanying paper by Simon Henderson, “The Case of Israel,” German Marshall Fund, June 2012; stated in Policy Brief- Resource Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean: The View from Washington by Jeffrey Mankoff, June 2012, p.2

4. “Erdogan warns Israel: Turkey can send warships to east Mediterranean at any time,” Reuters, September 15, 2011.; stated in Policy Brief- Resource Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean: The View from Washington by Jeffrey Mankoff ; June 2012; p:2

5. See “East Mediterranean Gas Politics: A Third Corridor?” Natural Gas Europe, March 28,2012, http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/east-mediterranean-gas-third-corridor.; stated in Policy Brief- Resource Rivalry in the Eastern Mediterranean: The View from Washington by Jeffrey Mankoff ; June 2012; p:4
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,9,Abkhazia,2,Academics,9,Accidents,20,Activism,1,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,11,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,86,Africa,109,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,17,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,6,Air Force,27,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,4,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,3,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,2,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,2,Artificial Intelligence,72,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,11,Asia,68,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,49,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,127,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,2,Aviation,59,AWACS,1,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,1,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,27,Banking,48,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,1,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,11,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,16,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,3,BISA,1,Bitcoin,7,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,1,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,2,Bond Market,1,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,6,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,103,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,19,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,3,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1097,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,51,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,79,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,47,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,525,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,65,Climate Change,18,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,43,Coal,4,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,86,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,4,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,3,COP26,4,Copper,1,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,14,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,5,Currency,7,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,6,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,111,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,11,Decision Support System,5,Defense,11,Defense Deals,7,Deforestation,2,Democracy,21,Democrats,2,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,1,Digital Economy,9,Digital Marketing,5,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,10,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,1,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,45,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,12,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,2,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,5,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,41,Economy,92,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,23,Education,63,Egypt,25,Elections,32,Electric Vehicle,13,Electricity,6,Electronics,8,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,14,Energy,313,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,23,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,46,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,11,European Union,224,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,4,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1256,Federal Reserve,1,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,50,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Food Security,25,Forces,1,Forecasting,1,Foreign Policy,12,Forex,4,France,28,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,2,GCC,11,GDP,9,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,2,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,104,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,5,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,8,Geothermal,2,Germany,63,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,92,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,17,Gorkhaland,1,Government,127,GPS,1,Greater Asia,144,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,2,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hasan,1,Health,7,Healthcare,71,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,10,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,14,Houthi,11,Howitzer,1,Human Development,30,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,5,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,3,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,73,Immigration,18,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,600,India's,1,Indian Air Force,18,Indian Army,5,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,24,Indian Ocean,19,Indices,1,Indo-Pacific,3,Indonesia,18,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,8,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,3,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,195,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,2,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,121,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,132,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,74,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,Joe Biden,6,Joint Strike Fighter,4,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kazakhstan,23,Kenya,5,Khalistan,1,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,79,Law,5,Leadership,3,Lebanon,9,Legal,10,LGBTQ,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Lifestyle,1,Linkedin,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,8,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,9,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,14,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,42,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,16,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,2,Mexico,11,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,104,Military Exercise,10,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,5,Missile Systems,52,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,11,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,10,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Myanmar,27,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,1,NASA,13,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,32,Natural Disasters,11,Natural Gas,32,Natural Language Processing,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,21,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,46,Navigation,2,Navy,22,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,6,News,1149,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,47,North Korea,52,Norway,3,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,39,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Security,45,Nuclear Submarine,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,4,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,370,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,67,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,655,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,171,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,21,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,1,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,5,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,15,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,3,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,49,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,4,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,17,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,2,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publishing,6,Putin,5,Q&A,1,Qatar,113,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,8,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,4,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,2,Referendum,5,Reforms,17,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,1,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,17,Report,2,Reports,44,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,5,Research and Development,22,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,294,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,3,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,126,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,370,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,2,Securities,1,Security,6,Semiconductor,12,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,4,Serbia,4,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,5,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,4,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,16,Situational Awareness,18,Smart Cities,7,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,14,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,46,South Asia,434,South China Sea,33,South East Asia,69,South Korea,47,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,45,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,22,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,20,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,13,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,45,Surveillance,10,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,5,Syria,111,Taiwan,25,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,2,Taxation,23,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,76,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,10,The Middle East,625,Think Tank,311,Tibet,3,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,13,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,19,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,40,Travel and Tourism,11,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,138,UAV,21,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,102,Ukraine War,13,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,76,United Nations,27,United States,708,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,9,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,16,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,20,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,18,Venture Capital,4,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,22,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WEF,2,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,1,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,11,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,34,World Economy,29,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,26,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: Hydrocarbon Resource Rivalry in Israel's Foreign Relations by Shalini Das
Hydrocarbon Resource Rivalry in Israel's Foreign Relations by Shalini Das
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WF3XtWSI61s/VW8gbqT3lYI/AAAAAAAABZ0/N7F942pcrDk/s640/TW-INTEL4-002.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WF3XtWSI61s/VW8gbqT3lYI/AAAAAAAABZ0/N7F942pcrDk/s72-c/TW-INTEL4-002.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2015/06/Hydrocarbon-Resource-Rivalry-in-Israels-Foreign-Relations-by-Shalini-Das.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2015/06/Hydrocarbon-Resource-Rivalry-in-Israels-Foreign-Relations-by-Shalini-Das.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content