SITREP: Persian Gulf–Black Sea Transport Corridor

By Benyamin Poghosyan

A New Route to Connect India with Europe via Armenia


Cover Image Attribute: Norduz Border Terminal at Iran-Armenia Border. / Source:Morten Knutsen via Flickr / Date: April 12, 2008
Cover Image Attribute: Norduz Border Terminal at Iran-Armenia Border. / Source: Morten Knutsen via Flickr / Date: April 12, 2008


The COVID–19 and the war in Ukraine have triggered the disruption of global supply chains forcing states to look for alternative transport routes to conduct trade and other economic activities. As one of the rising stars of the global economy, which just passed the UK to become the fifth largest economy in the world, India has looked for ways to expand its connections within Greater Eurasia even before the Pandemic and the Ukraine war. Given the increasing volume of cargo passing through the Suez channel, and the 2021 incident that blocked that waterway, India's primary task is establishing new routes to circumvent Suez while reaching Europe. In September 2000, India, Russia, and Iran declared their intention to establish an International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) to connect India with Russia and Northern Europe via Iran. Several other countries joined the project later, and currently, three routes are being discussed as a part of that corridor. The western route will pass via Iran and Azerbaijan, Trans-Caspian route will connect the Caspian Sea ports of Russia and Iran, and the Eastern Route will pass via Iran, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan.


India has chosen the Iranian port of Chabahar as an entry point for Indian goods to reach Iran. In 2003, India announced plans for investment in the Chabahar Port, signing a memorandum of understanding with Iran in 2015. The project gained traction in May 2016 when Prime Minister Modi announced that India would invest US$500 million in developing the Chabahar Port. The US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal in 2018 and the re-imposition of American sanctions created severe obstacles to the development of Chabahar port. In 2019 India secured exemptions from US sanctions, but the fear of secondary sanctions has made procuring equipment from private infrastructure companies challenging.



Map Attribute: Tarabaran.com

Meanwhile, as India struggled to keep up with its plans to develop the Chabahar port and transform it into the central Iranian hub for the INSTC, the war in Ukraine and the complete rupture in Russia – West relations made large-scale trade with Europe via Russia almost impossible. It is too challenging to predict the future course of the war in Ukraine, which means that INSTC may work only partly. It may establish an alternative route for India to connect with Russia but not with Europe. 


Meanwhile, since 2016, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, Bulgaria, and Greece have been negotiating the launch of the "Persian Gulf-Black Sea multimodal transport corridor" to connect Iran with Europe. The US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and re-imposition of American sanctions created obstacles for this project, but the project is still significant and under consideration. It will connect Iran with Georgian Black Sea ports via Armenia and/or Azerbaijan. Cargo will then reach the Bulgarian ports of Varna and Burgas via Greece to wider Europe. 


As India looks for alternative routes to reach Europe that may bypass both the Suez channel and Russia and has already looked to Iran as a transport and transit hub for Indian trade within Eurasia, the Persian Gulf - Black Sea corridor fits well into Indian strategy of creating a viable alternative route to Europe. One of the questions facing the Black Sea - Persian Gulf corridor is the route connecting Iran with Georgian Black sea ports. Cargo may reach Georgia from Iran via Armenia, via Azerbaijan, or passing both countries. However, given the growing tensions between Iran and Azerbaijan due to Azerbaijan – Israel strategic cooperation and Iranian concerns that Israel and the US use Azerbaijan as a launching pad for anti-Iranian activities, including triggering separatism in Azeri-speaking areas of Iran, Iran would be extremely cautious about choosing Azerbaijan as a transit route for Persian Gulf – Black Sea corridor. Iran would not appreciate giving additional leverage to Azerbaijan, which Baku may use to press Iran.


Given the rapid development of the Azerbaijan–Turkey–Pakistan strategic partnership, as well as the hardline anti-Indian policy of Turkish President Erdogan, probably, India would not like to see Azerbaijan as a route for both INSTC and the Persian Gulf–Black Sea corridor. As the inclusion of Azerbaijan into the Persian Gulf – Black Sea corridor is problematic for India and Iran, Armenia appears as the right choice to be included in the emerging transit routes connecting Iran with Georgian Black sea ports and India with Europe from a broader perspective. Armenia has developed friendly relations with Iran since gaining independence in 1991. Iran is one of the staunchest supporters of Armenia after the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, resisting Azerbaijani claims to establish a "Zangezur corridor" via Armenia to connect with Turkey. This corridor, if created, will pass through the Syunik region of Armenia, thus jeopardizing a 40 km long Armenia–Iran land border. 


At the same time, the Armenian and Indian nations share a long history of friendly interactions. During their millennia-long relations, the two countries have never acted against each other. India is increasingly concerned about this growing Turkey–Pakistan–Azerbaijan partnership and views Armenia as a strategic partner to curb Turkey's growing geopolitical ambitions. Recently Armenia and India signed several deals on weapons purchases, bringing Armenia – India partnership up to a strategic level.


Thus, India and Iran have arguments for choosing Armenia over Azerbaijan as a transit country to connect India with Europe via Iran, Georgia, and the Black Sea. Meanwhile, the primary challenge for Armenia to become a transit hub for large cargo shipments is the need for a developed transport infrastructure connecting Armenia with Iran. There is no railroad connecting the two countries, and the prominent Armenia–Iran highway has been closed since November 2021 by Azerbaijan, while the alternative highway is not suitable for large-scale cargo transportation. 


Armenian government declared its plans to construct a new highway connecting Armenia with Iran through the Southern Syunik region of Armenia. It envisages the construction of several tunnels and bridges to avoid the dangerous serpentines via mountains. Iranian companies have declared their intention to be actively involved in that project. Given the Indian expertise in large-scale infrastructure development, Armenia and India should explore ways to involve Indian companies in constructing the new Armenia–Iran highway. This may also include the provision of an Indian Line of credit to Armenia for that specific project. India's Lines of Credit (LOC) to its neighbors have increased significantly in recent years, from $3.27 billion in 2014 to $14.7 billion in 2020. Recently the EU has increased its engagement with Armenia and declared its intentions to support Armenia's economic development. This includes five flagship initiatives published in July 2021, focusing on transport infrastructure in the Syunik region. Thus, constructing the new Armenia–Iran highway aligns with the EU's regional strategic interests.


Armenia–Iran's new highway will serve the interests of Armenia, Iran, and India and may become a building block for future trilateral partnerships in other areas. As the first step to push forward this project, the Armenian government should organize an international conference emphasizing Armenia's transit role in the Persian Gulf–Black Sea project and in more expansive India–Europe transit with the participation of representatives of governments and construction companies from India, Iran, Georgia, and other interested stakeholders.


About the Author:


Benyamin Poghosyan is a Senior research fellow, APRI – Armenia, and the founder and Chairman of the Centre for Political and Economic Strategic Studies.






IndraStra Global is now available on
Apple NewsGoogle News, Flipboard, RSS, and Telegram

DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this insight piece are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of IndraStra Global.

COPYRIGHT: This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

REPUBLISH: Republish our articles online or in print for free if you follow these guidelines. https://www.indrastra.com/p/republish-us.html. 
Name

-51,1,3D Technology,2,5G,9,Abkhazia,2,Academics,10,Accidents,20,Activism,1,Adani Group,4,ADB,12,ADIZ,1,Adults,1,Advertising,31,Advisory,2,Aerial Reconnaissance,13,Aerial Warfare,35,Aerospace,5,Afghanistan,88,Africa,110,Agile Methodology,2,Agriculture,19,AI Policy,1,Air Crash,10,Air Defence Identification Zone,1,Air Defense,6,Air Force,29,Air Pollution,1,Airbus,5,Aircraft Carriers,5,Aircraft Systems,5,Al Nusra,1,Al Qaida,4,Al Shabab,1,Alaska,1,ALBA,1,Albania,2,Algeria,3,Alibaba,1,American History,4,AmritaJash,10,Antarctic,1,Antarctica,1,Anthropology,7,Anti Narcotics,12,Anti Tank,1,Anti-Corruption,4,Anti-dumping,1,Anti-Piracy,2,Anti-Submarine,1,Anti-Terrorism Legislation,1,Antitrust,2,APEC,1,Apple,2,Applied Sciences,2,AQAP,2,Arab League,3,Architecture,2,Arctic,6,Argentina,7,Armenia,30,Army,3,Art,3,Artificial Intelligence,80,Artillery,2,Arunachal Pradesh,2,ASEAN,12,Asia,70,Asia Pacific,23,Assassination,2,Asset Management,1,Astrophysics,2,ATGM,1,Atmospheric Science,1,Atomic.Atom,1,Augmented Reality,7,Australia,54,Austria,1,Automation,13,Automotive,129,Autonomous Flight,2,Autonomous Vehicle,3,Aviation,63,AWACS,2,Awards,17,Azerbaijan,16,Azeri,1,B2B,1,Bahrain,9,Balance of Payments,2,Balance of Trade,3,Balkan,10,Balochistan,1,Baltic,3,Baluchistan,8,Bangladesh,28,Banking,52,Bankruptcy,2,Basel,1,Bashar Al Asad,1,Battery Technology,2,Bay of Bengal,5,BBC,2,Beijing,1,Belarus,3,Belgium,1,Belt Road Initiative,3,Beto O'Rourke,1,BFSI,1,Bhutan,13,Big Data,30,Big Tech,1,Bilateral Cooperation,19,BIMSTEC,1,Biography,1,Biotechnology,3,Birth,1,BISA,1,Bitcoin,9,Black Lives Matter,1,Black Money,3,Black Sea,2,Blockchain,32,Blood Diamonds,1,Bloomberg,1,Boeing,21,Boko Haram,7,Bolivia,6,Bomb,3,Bond Market,2,Book,11,Book Review,24,Border Conflicts,11,Border Control and Surveillance,7,Bosnia,1,Brand Management,14,Brazil,104,Brexit,22,BRI,5,BRICS,20,British,3,Broadcasting,16,Brunei,3,Brussels,1,Buddhism,1,Budget,4,Build Back Better,1,Bulgaria,1,Burma,2,Business & Economy,1181,C-UAS,1,California,5,Call for Proposals,1,Cambodia,7,Cameroon,1,Canada,54,Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS),1,Carbon Economy,9,CAREC,1,Caribbean,9,CARICOM,1,Caspian Sea,2,Catalan,3,Catholic Church,1,Caucasus,9,CBRN,1,Cement,1,Central African Republic,1,Central Asia,81,Central Asian,3,Central Eastern Europe,47,Certification,1,Chad,2,Chanakya,1,Charity,2,Chatbots,2,Chemicals,7,Child Labor,1,Child Marriage,1,Children,4,Chile,10,China,570,Christianity,1,CIA,1,CIS,5,Citizenship,2,Civil Engineering,2,Civil Liberties,5,Civil Rights,2,Civil Society,5,Civil Unrest,1,Civilization,1,Clean Energy,5,Climate,66,Climate Change,21,Climate Finance,2,Clinical Research,3,Clinton,1,Cloud Computing,44,Coal,6,Coast Guard,3,Cognitive Computing,12,Cold War,4,Colombia,15,Commodities,4,Communication,11,Communism,3,Compliance,1,Computers,40,Computing,1,Conferences,1,Conflict,106,Conflict Diamonds,1,Conflict Resolution,48,Conflict Resources,1,Congo,1,Construction,5,Consumer Behavior,4,Consumer Price Index,4,COP26,4,COP28,1,Copper,2,Coronavirus,107,Corporate Communication,1,Corporate Governance,4,Corporate Social Responsibility,4,Corruption,4,Costa Rica,2,Counter Intelligence,15,Counter Terrorism,81,COVID,9,COVID Vaccine,6,CPEC,8,CPG,3,Credit,2,Credit Rating,1,Credit Score,1,Crimea,4,CRM,1,Croatia,2,Crypto Currency,16,Cryptography,1,CSTO,1,Cuba,6,Culture,5,Currency,8,Customer Relationship Management,1,Cyber Attack,7,Cyber Crime,2,Cyber Security & Warfare,115,Cybernetics,5,Cyberwarfare,16,Cyclone,1,Cyprus,5,Czech Republic,3,DACA,1,DARPA,3,Data,9,Data Analytics,36,Data Center,2,Data Science,2,Database,3,Daughter.Leslee,1,Davos,1,DEA,1,DeBeers,1,Debt,12,Decision Support System,5,Defense,12,Defense Deals,8,Deforestation,2,Democracy,21,Democrats,2,Demographic Studies,1,Demonetization,6,Denmark. F-35,1,Denuclearization,1,Diamonds,1,Digital,39,Digital Currency,1,Digital Economy,10,Digital Marketing,6,Digital Transformation,11,Diplomacy,14,Diplomatic Row,2,Disaster Management,4,Disinformation,1,Diversity & Inclusion,1,Djibouti,2,Documentary,2,Doklam,2,Dokolam,1,Dominica,2,Donald Trump,46,Donetsk,2,Dossier,2,Drones,14,E-Government,2,E-International Relations,1,Earning Reports,3,Earth Science,1,Earthquake,7,East Africa,2,East China Sea,9,eBook,1,ECB,1,eCommerce,11,Econometrics,2,Economic Justice,1,Economics,43,Economy,105,ECOWAS,2,Ecuador,3,Edge Computing,2,Editor's Opinion,44,Education,65,Egypt,27,Elections,37,Electric Vehicle,14,Electricity,7,Electronics,8,Emerging Markets,1,Employment,18,Energy,316,Energy Policy,28,Energy Politics,27,Engineering,24,England,2,Enterprise Software Solutions,8,Entrepreneurship,15,Environment,47,ePayments,13,Epidemic,6,ESA,1,Ethiopia,3,Eulogy,4,Eurasia,3,Euro,6,Europe,12,European Union,229,EuroZone,5,Exchange-traded Funds,1,Exclusive,2,Exhibitions,2,Explosives,1,Export Import,6,F-35,6,Facebook,9,Fake News,3,Fallen,1,FARC,2,Farnborough. United Kingdom,2,FATF,1,FDI,5,Featured,1336,Federal Reserve,2,Fidel Castro,1,FIFA World Cup,1,Fiji,1,Finance,18,Financial Markets,57,Financial Planning,1,Financial Statement,2,Finland,5,Fintech,14,Fiscal Policy,14,Fishery,3,Five Eyes,1,Food Security,27,Forces,1,Forecasting,2,Foreign Policy,13,Forex,4,France,33,Free Market,1,Free Syrian Army,4,Freedom,3,Freedom of Press,1,Freedom of Speech,2,Frigate,1,FTC,1,Fujairah,97,Fund Management,1,Funding,22,Future,1,G20,10,G24,1,G7,4,Gaddafi,1,Gambia,2,Gaming,1,Garissa Attack,1,Gas Price,23,GATT,1,Gaza,13,GCC,11,GDP,12,GDPR,1,Gender Studies,1,Geneal Management,1,General Management,1,Generative AI,6,Genetics,1,Geo Politics,105,Geography,2,Geoint,14,Geopolitics,8,Georgia,11,Georgian,1,geospatial,9,Geothermal,2,Germany,67,Ghana,3,Gibratar,1,Gig economy,1,Global Perception,1,Global Trade,95,Global Warming,1,Global Water Crisis,10,Globalization,3,Gold,2,Google,20,Gorkhaland,1,Government,127,GPS,1,Greater Asia,164,Greece,13,Green Bonds,1,Green Energy,3,Greenland,1,Gross Domestic Product,1,GST,1,Gujarat,6,Gun Control,4,Hacking,4,Haiti,2,Hamas,10,Hasan,1,Health,8,Healthcare,72,Heatwave,1,Helicopter,12,Heliport,1,Hezbollah,3,High Altitude Warfare,1,High Speed Railway System,1,Hillary 2016,1,Hillary Clinton,1,Himalaya,1,Hinduism,2,Hindutva,4,History,10,Home Security,1,Honduras,2,Hong Kong,7,Horn of Africa,5,Housing,15,Houthi,12,Howitzer,1,Human Development,32,Human Resource Management,5,Human Rights,6,Humanitarian,3,Hungary,3,Hunger,3,Hydrocarbon,3,Hydrogen,4,IAEA,2,ICBM,1,Iceland,1,ICO,1,Identification,2,IDF,1,Imaging,2,IMEEC,2,IMF,76,Immigration,19,Impeachment,1,Imran Khan,1,Independent Media,72,India,647,India's,1,Indian Air Force,19,Indian Army,7,Indian Nationalism,1,Indian Navy,27,Indian Ocean,22,Indices,1,Indigenous rights,1,Indo-Pacific,4,Indonesia,18,IndraStra,1,Industrial Accidents,3,Industrial Automation,2,Industrial Safety,4,Inflation,10,Infographic,1,Information Leaks,1,Infrastructure,3,Innovations,22,Insider Trading,1,Insurance,3,Intellectual Property,3,Intelligence,5,Intelligence Analysis,8,Interest Rate,3,International Business,13,International Law,11,International Relations,9,Internet,53,Internet of Things,34,Interview,8,Intra-Government,5,Investigative Journalism,4,Investment,32,Investor Relations,1,iPhone,1,IPO,4,Iran,201,Iraq,54,IRGC,1,Iron & Steel,4,ISAF,1,ISIL,9,ISIS,33,Islam,12,Islamic Banking,1,Islamic State,86,Israel,141,ISRO,1,IT ITeS,135,Italy,10,Jabhat al-Nusra,1,Jack Ma,1,Jamaica,3,Japan,85,JASDF,1,Jihad,1,JMSDF,1,Joe Biden,6,Joint Strike Fighter,5,Jordan,7,Journalism,6,Judicial,4,Justice System,3,Kanchin,1,Kashmir,8,Kaspersky,1,Kazakhstan,25,Kenya,5,Khalistan,2,Kiev,1,Kindle,700,Knowledge Management,4,Korean Conflict,1,Kosovo,2,Kubernetes,1,Kurdistan,8,Kurds,10,Kuwait,7,Kyrgyzstan,9,Labor Laws,10,Labor Market,4,Land Reforms,3,Land Warfare,21,Languages,1,Laos,2,Large language models,1,Laser Defense Systems,1,Latin America,80,Law,6,Leadership,3,Lebanon,10,Legal,11,LGBTQ,2,Li Keqiang,1,Liberalism,1,Library Science,1,Libya,14,Lifestyle,1,Light Battle Tank,1,Linkedin,1,Littoral Warfare,2,Livelihood,3,Loans,9,Lockdown,1,Lone Wolf Attacks,2,Lugansk,2,Macedonia,1,Machine Learning,7,Madagascar,1,Mahmoud,1,Main Battle Tank,3,Malaysia,12,Maldives,11,Mali,7,Malware,2,Management Consulting,6,Manpower,1,Manto,1,Manufacturing,15,Marijuana,1,Marine Engineering,3,Maritime,50,Market Research,2,Marketing,38,Mars,2,Martech,10,Mass Media,29,Mass Shooting,1,Material Science,2,Mauritania,1,Mauritius,1,MDGs,1,Mechatronics,2,Media War,1,MediaWiki,1,Medicare,1,Mediterranean,12,MENA,6,Mental Health,4,Mercosur,2,Mergers and Acquisitions,17,Meta,2,Metadata,2,Metals,3,Mexico,12,Micro-finance,4,Microsoft,12,Migration,19,Mike Pence,1,Military,110,Military Exercise,10,Military-Industrial Complex,3,Mining,15,Missile Launching Facilities,6,Missile Systems,56,Mobile Apps,3,Mobile Communications,11,Mobility,4,Modi,8,Moldova,1,Monaco,1,Monetary Policy,6,Money Market,2,Mongolia,10,Monkeypox,1,Monsoon,1,Montreux Convention,1,Moon,4,Morocco,2,Morsi,1,Mortgage,3,Moscow,2,Motivation,1,Mozambique,1,Mubarak,1,Multilateralism,2,Mumbai,1,Muslim Brotherhood,2,Mutual Funds,1,Myanmar,30,NAFTA,3,NAM,2,Namibia,1,Nanotechnology,4,Narendra Modi,2,NASA,13,National Identification Card,1,National Security,5,Nationalism,2,NATO,33,Natural Disasters,14,Natural Gas,33,Natural Language Processing,1,Nauru,1,Naval Base,5,Naval Engineering,23,Naval Intelligence,2,Naval Postgraduate School,2,Naval Warfare,49,Navigation,2,Navy,23,NBC Warfare,2,NDC,1,Nearshoring,1,Negotiations,2,Nepal,12,Neurosciences,7,New Delhi,4,New Normal,1,New York,5,New Zealand,7,News,1230,News Publishers,1,Newspaper,1,NFT,1,NGO,1,Nicaragua,1,Niger,3,Nigeria,10,Nikki Haley,1,Nirbhaya,1,Non Aligned Movement,1,Non Government Organization,4,Nonproliferation,2,North Africa,23,North America,51,North Korea,58,Norway,4,NSA,1,NSG,2,Nuclear,40,Nuclear Agreement,32,Nuclear Doctrine,2,Nuclear Energy,3,Nuclear Fussion,1,Nuclear Propulsion,1,Nuclear Security,47,Nuclear Submarine,1,NYSE,1,Obama,3,ObamaCare,2,OBOR,15,Ocean Engineering,1,Oceania,2,OECD,5,OFID,5,Oil & Gas,381,Oil Gas,7,Oil Price,73,Olympics,2,Oman,25,Omicron,1,Oncology,1,Online Education,5,Online Reputation Management,1,OPEC,129,Open Access,1,Open Journal Systems,1,Open Letter,1,Open Source,4,OpenAI,1,Operation Unified Protector,1,Operational Research,4,Opinion,679,Opinon Poll,1,Optical Communications,1,Pacific,5,Pakistan,179,Pakistan Air Force,3,Pakistan Army,1,Pakistan Navy,3,Palestine,23,Palm Oil,1,Pandemic,84,Papal,1,Paper,3,Papers,110,Papua New Guinea,2,Paracels,1,Partition,1,Partnership,1,Party Congress,1,Passport,1,Patents,2,PATRIOT Act,1,Peace Deal,6,Peacekeeping Mission,1,Pension,1,People Management,1,Persian Gulf,19,Peru,5,Petrochemicals,1,Petroleum,19,Pharmaceuticals,13,Philippines,17,Philosophy,2,Photos,3,Physics,1,Pipelines,5,PLA,2,PLAN,4,Plastic Industry,2,Poland,8,Polar,1,Policing,1,Policy,8,Policy Brief,6,Political Studies,1,Politics,51,Polynesia,3,Pope,1,Population,6,Portugal,1,Poverty,8,Power Transmission,6,President APJ Abdul Kalam,2,Presidential Election,30,Press Release,158,Prison System,1,Privacy,18,Private Equity,1,Private Military Contractors,2,Privatization,1,Programming,1,Project Management,4,Propaganda,5,Protests,11,Psychology,3,Public Policy,55,Public Relations,1,Public Safety,7,Publications,1,Publishing,7,Purchasing Managers' Index,1,Putin,7,Q&A,1,Qatar,114,QC/QA,1,Qods Force,1,Quad,1,Quantum Computing,3,Quantum Physics,4,Quarter Results,2,Racial Justice,2,RADAR,2,Rahul Guhathakurta,4,Railway,9,Raj,1,Ranking,4,Rape,1,RBI,1,RCEP,2,Real Estate,6,Recall,4,Recession,2,Red Sea,4,Referendum,5,Reforms,18,Refugee,23,Regional,4,Regulations,2,Rehabilitation,1,Religion & Spirituality,9,Renewable,17,Report,2,Reports,45,Repository,1,Republicans,3,Rescue Operation,1,Research,5,Research and Development,24,Retail,36,Revenue Management,1,Rice,1,Risk Management,5,Robotics,8,Rohingya,5,Romania,2,Royal Canadian Air Force,1,Rupee,1,Russia,308,Russian Navy,5,Saab,1,Saadat,1,SAARC,6,Safety,1,SAFTA,1,SAM,2,Samoa,1,Sanctions,5,SAR,1,SAT,1,Satellite,14,Saudi Arabia,128,Scandinavia,6,Science & Technology,390,Science Fiction,1,SCO,5,Scotland,6,Scud Missile,1,Sea Lanes of Communications,4,SEBI,3,Securities,2,Security,6,Semiconductor,16,Senate,4,Senegal,1,SEO,5,Serbia,4,Services Sector,1,Seychelles,2,SEZ,1,Shadow Bank,1,Shale Gas,4,Shanghai,1,Sharjah,12,Shia,6,Shinzo Abe,1,Shipping,9,Shutdown,2,Siachen,1,Sierra Leone,1,Signal Intelligence,1,Sikkim,5,Silicon Valley,1,Silk Route,6,Simulations,2,Sinai,1,Singapore,16,Situational Awareness,20,Small Modular Nuclear Reactors,1,Smart Cities,7,Social Media,1,Social Media Intelligence,40,Social Policy,40,Social Science,1,Social Security,1,Socialism,1,Soft Power,1,Software,7,Solar Energy,14,Somalia,5,South Africa,20,South America,46,South Asia,465,South China Sea,35,South East Asia,72,South Korea,56,South Sudan,4,Sovereign Wealth Funds,1,Soviet,2,Soviet Union,7,Space,46,Space Station,2,Spain,9,Special Forces,1,Sports,3,Sports Diplomacy,1,Spratlys,1,Sri Lanka,23,Stablecoin,1,Stamps,1,Startups,43,State of the Union,1,STEM,1,Stephen Harper,1,Stock Markets,23,Storm,2,Strategy Games,5,Strike,1,Sub-Sahara,3,Submarine,14,Sudan,5,Sunni,6,Super computing,1,Supply Chain Management,47,Surveillance,11,Survey,5,Sustainable Development,18,Swami Vivekananda,1,Sweden,4,Switzerland,5,Syria,112,Taiwan,30,Tajikistan,12,Taliban,17,Tamar Gas Fields,1,Tamil,1,Tanzania,4,Tariff,4,Tata,3,Taxation,25,Tech Fest,1,Technology,13,Tel-Aviv,1,Telecom,24,Telematics,1,Territorial Disputes,1,Terrorism,76,Testing,2,Texas,3,Thailand,11,The Middle East,645,Think Tank,314,Tibet,3,TikTok,1,Tobacco,1,Tonga,1,Total Quality Management,2,Town Planning,2,TPP,2,Trade Agreements,14,Trade War,10,Trademarks,1,Trainging and Development,1,Transcaucasus,19,Transcript,4,Transpacific,2,Transportation,47,Travel and Tourism,13,Tsar,1,Tunisia,7,Turkey,74,Turkmenistan,10,U.S. Air Force,3,U.S. Dollar,2,UAE,139,UAV,23,UCAV,1,Udwains,1,Uganda,1,Ukraine,108,Ukraine War,20,Ummah,1,UNCLOS,7,Unemployment,1,UNESCO,1,UNHCR,1,UNIDO,2,United Kingdom,81,United Nations,27,United States,741,University and Colleges,4,Uranium,2,Urban Planning,10,US Army,11,US Army Aviation,1,US Congress,1,US FDA,1,US Navy,17,US Postal Service,1,US Space Force,2,USA,16,USAF,21,USV,1,UUV,1,Uyghur,3,Uzbekistan,13,Valuation,1,Vatican,3,Vedant,1,Venezuela,19,Venture Capital,4,Vibrant Gujarat,1,Victim,1,Videogames,1,Vietnam,23,Virtual Reality,7,Vision 2030,1,VPN,1,Wahhabism,3,War,1,War Games,1,Warfare,1,Water,17,Water Politics,7,Weapons,11,Wearable,2,Weather,2,Webinar,1,WeChat,1,WEF,3,Welfare,1,West,2,West Africa,19,West Bengal,2,Western Sahara,2,White House,1,Whitepaper,2,WHO,3,Wholesale Price Index,1,Wikileaks,1,Wikipedia,2,Wildfire,1,Wildlife,3,Wind Energy,1,Windows,1,Wireless Security,1,Wisconsin,1,Women,10,Women's Right,11,Workers Union,1,Workshop,1,World Bank,34,World Economy,32,World Peace,10,World War I,1,World War II,3,WTO,6,Wyoming,1,Xi Jinping,9,Xinjiang,2,Yemen,27,Yevgeny Prigozhin,1,Zbigniew Brzezinski,1,Zimbabwe,2,
ltr
item
IndraStra Global: SITREP: Persian Gulf–Black Sea Transport Corridor
SITREP: Persian Gulf–Black Sea Transport Corridor
By Benyamin Poghosyan
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEgALEDjIilrmmmLGt_-bEgm_bm3mA33WOg0VXcL6TsaTuN76kHBh40GlitAOQvzN0Jt5gpkd0MpfEKuZiSxr2Tf2ZwRfPX8l088OXF6-_tz-eKyLYHv2WVapMovu-CdbGCQa3Vf7WuEpqZKtRSMFIkdRjsZqGKKLe-ytGLXvMnUWUJAU_gdlbMPVcVj/w640-h426/2434472930_9c137a5119_b.jpg
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEgALEDjIilrmmmLGt_-bEgm_bm3mA33WOg0VXcL6TsaTuN76kHBh40GlitAOQvzN0Jt5gpkd0MpfEKuZiSxr2Tf2ZwRfPX8l088OXF6-_tz-eKyLYHv2WVapMovu-CdbGCQa3Vf7WuEpqZKtRSMFIkdRjsZqGKKLe-ytGLXvMnUWUJAU_gdlbMPVcVj/s72-w640-c-h426/2434472930_9c137a5119_b.jpg
IndraStra Global
https://www.indrastra.com/2023/02/sitrep-persian-gulfblack-sea-transport.html
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/
https://www.indrastra.com/2023/02/sitrep-persian-gulfblack-sea-transport.html
true
1461303524738926686
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content