Nielmar de Oliveira reports from Agência Brasil
Image Attribute: Aerial View of Brazilian Amazonian Rain Forest / Wikimedia Commons
The value of Brazilian forest products based on extractives and forestry reached $5.9 billion in 2015, lower than the total reached in 2014 ($6.1 billion). Data was collected by the survey entitled Forest Products Based on Extractives and Forestry Production (PEVS) in 2015, released by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) today (Oct. 27) with figures of the activities related to the forest sector.
Of the $5.9 billion, the forestry—directly related to forests regeneration and planting— accounted for 74.3% of production, equivalent to $4.4 billion. Forest products based on extractives—collection of natural products from native forests—accounted for 25.7% ($ 1.5 billion).
Despite the drop in revenues compared with 2015, the forest sector, especially the production from planted forests, has achieved "a dominant position in the national scenario" in recent years, according to the IBGE.
In an interview to Agência Brasil, IBGE survey manager Luís Celso Guimarães gave as reason for the decline in the total amount of forest production "the economic crisis in Brazil and in the world, which reduced the current demand of products derived from steel that uses a lot of charcoal from forestry."
Among the exceptions, Guimarães pointed out products for pulp and paper production, which the increased demand has partly offset the reduction of steel products and the fall in the export of wood logs.
The 2015 survey also indicates that in forestry the four wood products totaled $4.2 billion and the three non-wood, $93.8 million. In products based on extractives, the share of wood products reached $1.02 billion and the non-wood totaled $480 million.
The group of food products achieved the highest rate of non-wood forest products based on extractives in 2015, reaching 69.4%, followed by waxes (14.8%), oleaginous (8.3%), fiber (7%) and other groups (0.5%).
In forest products based on extractives, 13 products reported a growth in production. And açaí palm fruit reported the largest absolute growth, with 17,900 tons more than in 2014. Among the 21 products with the largest fall in production, the babassu nuts have stood out, with less than 6 tons produced.
All wood forest products based on extractives fell in 2015, "which is directly linked to the crisis and the economic recession" that affects the country, according to Luis Guimarães.
The forest sector, especially the production from planted forests (forestry), has achieved a dominant position in the national scenario, generating jobs and income, in recent years, according to the IBGE.
Data released by the IBGE, based on estimates of the Brazilian Tree Industry (IBÁ),—representing the segments of wood panels and laminate flooring, pulp, paper, energy forests, independent planted tree producers and institutional investors—indicate Brazil as the world's fourth largest pulp producer, behind China, the United States and Canada; and Brazil is already the first in eucalyptus pulp production.
“The favorable climate is the main factor of high forest income earned by the country. In Brazil, a eucalyptus tree is ready to be cut after seven years, while in Chile only after 18," according to the IBGE.
According to IBÁ estimates, the sector is responsible for creating about 3.8 million direct and indirect jobs.
The main products that stood out in production value remained at the same level when compared to 2014, and were led by some food products like açaí palm fruit ($153.7 million), yerba mate ($126.9 million) and Brazil nut ($34.4 million);
Non-wood forest products based on extractives are mostly produced in the North region, especially the açaí palm fruit (93.1%) and Brazil nut (94.9%), and in the Northeast region, where the production of babassu nuts (99.7%), piassava fibers (96.1%) and carnauba powder (100%) stood out. In the South region, only two products stood out: yerba mate (99.9%) and pine nut (85.5%).
Image Attribute: The economic crisis has affected all wood forest products based on extractives in 2015.Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil
The economic crisis has affected all wood forest products based on extractives in 2015. The product that reported the largest fall in production was the charcoal, declining 21.9%; followed by firewood (6.8%); wood logs, mainly for export (3.2%); and pine-tree-knots (55.3%).
Consequently, the number of Brazilian pine felled trees dropped 40%. Industrial demand, the price, manpower for collecting certain products and the work of environmental control and inspection—which at times allows agriculture in certain areas, then intensifies supervision (imposing fines and shutting sawmills and charcoal mill)—in addition to weather conditions, were factors that largely explain the fluctuations in the production of forest products based on extractives. "In this sector, significant fluctuations in production are common," read IBGE's survey.
The forestry wood production has most of its activities in the Southeast region like the main producer of charcoal (84.6%) and wood logs for pulp and paper (36.9%). The South region accounts for 65.1% of firewood and 66.6% of wood logs for other purposes.
The non-wood forestry products are also mostly produced in the Southeast and South regions—the black-wattle bark is only found in the South region, while the production of eucalyptus leaves (94.7%) and resin (73.7%) are in the Southeast region.
Translated by Amarílis Anchieta Edited by: Kleber Sampaio / Nira Foster
(c) 2016 Empresa Brasil de Comunicação S/A - EBC / Creative Commons Atribuição 3.0 Brasil